The Ron House


(Attributed to Antonio de Ron)

Madrid, 1930 - Lugo, 1932


Translated and annotated by

Alberto E. Ron


Version 1.0.0 - November 11, 1998

Version 1.1.0 - November 19, 1998

Translation ©1998, All Rights Reserved.


Translator's Dedication

I dedicate the translation of this book to my wife, who put up with the many long hours that it took to complete this task and who encouraged the effort; to my children, who may most benefit from it; and to my ailing father as a memory of a long search finally concluded.

Alberto E. Ron
Houston, Texas
November, 1998

Translator's Note

In 1964, when I was 10 years old, a family friend returning from a trip to Spain informed my father of the existence of a book entitled "La Casa Ron" which dealt with the Ron family. My grandfather, who emigrated from the Galicia-Asturias area at the turn of the century to Havana, was never very forthcoming about "the old country", and since we had only met four other Rones in all our travels, our information about the Ron family was scarce. Knowledge about the existence of this book, therefore, prompted my father, and later myself to endeavor to acquire a copy.

In January 1997 I decided to create an Internet web site for the purpose of posting all the information that my father and I had managed to gather about the Ron family. To my surprise, I began to get electronic mail from others who had visited the site and who shared the same surname, a number that quickly surmounted all the other Rones that my father and I had heard of in 75 years. In mid-1998, I received e-mail from an individual from Spain named Xesus Ron, and after some exchanges I came to know that his grandfather had written the book in question. After 34 years of looking through every library and bookstore that I could reach, the search was finally over when he gracefully sent me a photocopy of the out-of-print book, which I began to translate into English shortly thereafter.

The full title of the 235 page book is "LA CASA DE RON y sus agregadas IBIAS, QUIROS, VALCARCE, CABALLERO, y otras - Estudio Genealógico y Heráldico". It lists no author, although it is well known that it was written by a lawyer from Lugo called Antonio de Ron, as a review of the book in a local newspaper (a photocopy of which was also supplied by Xesus Ron) attests. It was published in Madrid in 1930 and later (in 1932) in Lugo and does not bear a copyright.

The book is written in a style that makes some parts of it difficult to translate for the consumption of the contemporary reader: Some sentences are elaborate and run for more than a page. Also, the relationship between individuals mentioned are often confused by the style, and required repeated and careful reading before they could be understood. It has been my goal during this effort to attempt to convey the substance without altering the style more than I considered necessary to maintain my own comprehension during re-reading. Thus, there are exceedingly long passages which I have divided into several sentences and at times several paragraphs. However, the entire content of the book is offered without abridgment. Note this also implies that passages which today would be considered politically incorrect (and which do not represent the opinion of the translator) were not expunged from the translation.

The book is written in Spanish, with extensive quotes from original sources, which were left untranslated from Gallego, Latin, and ancient Castillian. Although I can read these languages with various degrees of proficiency, I decided to leave the quotes in the original language, offering my attempt at their translation in footnotes, thus allowing a more knowledgeable reader the opportunity to better interpret the nuances. Taking advantage of the capability granted by the Internet to readily re-publish material, I have included a version number to the translation. If at a later date, someone offers a better interpretation of the quotes, I shall include them and update the version number.

The book is divided into 8 parts, one each for the Ron; Ibias; Ron-Ibias-Quiros; Valcarce; Ron-Ibias-Quiros-Valcarce; Caballero; and Ron-Ibias-Quiros-Valcarce-Caballero lines, plus a Postscript. The first section (Ron) occupies nearly half of the pages of the book.

Historical Value

Leaving aside familial concerns, I have found the book interesting in that it offers details of the history of Asturias and of Spain that I have never found in textbooks written for undergraduate and graduate university history courses.

The mountainous area of Asturias, isolated from the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, would have remained a backwater were it not for a singular event that transformed it into the most significant area of Spain: After the Moorish invasion of A.D. 711, Asturias offered a resistance only rivaled by that which they previously offered the Romans. The Moors overran the region as they had done in the rest of Iberia, except for the single, small stronghold of La Peña in the Cantabrian Mountains, perhaps the last portion of the peninsula which remained in Christian hands. After an intense but unsuccessful three year siege, the Moors, anxious to wrap up the situation, threw themselves into an attack at Covadonga, where they were defeated. The few defenders of La Peña thus became the nucleus of the Spanish Reconquista, which after more than 700 years of war eventually saw the Moors thrown out of what are now Spain and Portugal. Those few defenders (four of which belonged to the Ron family), by a strange fate of war thus sired most of the noble houses of Spain.

By 1492, when the last remaining Moorish stronghold at Granada fell, the opportunities of gain by war offered to the cadet branches of these old, originally Asturian lines dried out. Proud of an ancient name but poor of means, these descendants of the defenders of La Peña jumped at the opportunity offered by the fateful discovery on that same year of a new continent by Christopher Columbus. In less than three decades they acquired by conquest most of the Spanish possessions abroad, making Spain the empire of largest territorial extent that had existed until that time.

Knowledge of the history of this small region of Asturias, its rocky, isolated mountains and the way that they shaped the character of the stubborn people who defended them thus sheds light on the history and culture of many parts of the globe.

- Alberto E. Ron

The Ron House

Asturias: center, fortress, and birthplace of the Reconquista, was already the bastion of her independence when the Roman Legions sent by Augustus and his Legates tried to subdue her by force in order to subject it to the Empire.
1 This affront was converted in her greatest title of glory, for her wild, mountain-dwelling sons possessed a spirit of untamed independence which was always the characteristic quality of their indomitable nature.2

Under orders from their chieftains Liranto in the east, Gauzón in the central region, and Asur in the west, they took refuge in the awe-inspiring, abrupt, and unaccostable fortresses which nature splendidly endowed this land, and from there resisted their powerful assaults with persevering obstinance. The Romans, concerned about an indefinite prolongation of a tenacious war of extermination, without able to glimpse a possible victory
3, found themselves in the bitter necessity of having to negotiate a peace similar to that which achieved such great success in Galicia, and which served as the model for the Hispano-Roman relations that were established thereafter.

These peace accords gave Emperor Augustus sufficient pretext to declare that all the precincts of the Empire were pacified and achieved his desire to close for the fourth time the Temple of Janus
4. This was done even though neither then nor for a long span of time later, this region was not pacified and much less dominated until the Romans with their policies of attraction filed down the rough feelings with frequent interchanges and signs of friendship, and began to take possession of the will of the naive natives, influencing them to adopt in great part Roman customs and laws.

Riches were produced by exploiting the great and plentiful deposits of gold, from which according to Pliny in his Natural History (Book 11, Chapter 111) the enormous quantity of 20,000 pounds of pure gold were extracted annually
5. Over time, the well-being grew and family links were established between the two peoples, joining the Romans with the natives and creating with these unions a new class, that of the Nobility, until then unknown by those simple inhabitants, but which very soon, according to the same Pliny which expresses it in the following manner, consisted of 240,000 free individuals of Noble blood in the 22 towns that constituted the Juridical Convent of Astúrica Augusta.

In this manner, this people, jealous guardians of their independence in the outmost during the long years of its existence by tenaciously resisting every power and foreign domination, went from implacable enemy of the Romans and like none other courageous and feared, to their most faithful friend and most constant ally of the Empire. They forgot their hatred, put aside their fierceness, and transformed themselves into a people able to favorably receive civilization and the Laws of Rome.

Since then, the Astures, who had simple customs and few needs, laborious and active, were for the Rome whom they had so tenaciously fought against, its most constant auxiliaries and faithful allies. They enjoyed great respect and admiration due to the indomitable valor that they had displayed during its two century resistance against the power of the Roman Legions and held in great esteem by the other peoples as heroic defenders of the independence of their homes.

The barbaric people who invaded and devastated the rest of the regions of the (Iberian) Peninsula with their furious assaults did not dare to measure their strength and potent charges with a people which defended themselves so virily. And even though the Goths later seized almost all of Spain
6, they never during their constant enterprises, undertaken with great perseverance, reduce to obedience the territories situated north of Cantabrian Cordillera, which was a continuous nightmare for their kings, who never achieved their ambitious intent.

After seven centuries of peace, alliance, and harmony had elapsed, the Romans and the Astures had fused, creating the Hispano-Roman lineage. [At that time], the Saracens
7, who victoriously erupted through all the precincts of the Peninsula, intended to seize the only corner where they had not succeeded in becoming its master. They found this Nobility of Asturias and Galicia collecting their forces in defense of their lands and homes. At the command of PELAYO, they took refuge in LA PEÑA (The Boulder), from where offering the most heroic resistance, stopped the advance of the powerful army that was formed in Córdoba with the expressed purpose of going against them. Under the command of Alcamán, a Captain of great prestige, they encircled the defenders with all their forces, tightening the siege. The results of their efforts were so miserable that once realizing the impossibility of their intent they hurled themselves into a desperate charge on Covadonga8. There, PELAYO and his men awaited them haughtily. Throwing their meager forces against the immense power of their foresightless enemy, they inflicted the most disastrous and humiliating defeat registered in the history of those times.

And, if "Covadonga was always Spanish, for the rest had to be conquered from the Moors," the same can be said of the western region [Asturias]. Because certainly if in this one part they were unable in any way to leave their footprints, in the others they were unable to plant them calmly. Before the year during which the victory of Covadonga took place had expired, and before the Moors had time to establish themselves, they were thrown out by force of arms by the same PELAYO in person. He not only threw them out of Asturias, but continued pursuing them out to León, where the Moors arrived completely defeated. It was a long-distance enterprise undertaken with raw fury, but from which he withdrew from the conquered lands for it was not possible under those circumstances to sustain its occupation while leaving Asturias without garrison, exposed to the contingencies of a probable subsequent attack, which occurred in short order.

It was during this episode that the deep differences between the Gothic and Hispanic races disappeared. Both groups melted together into the denomination of Christians, fighting from then on under a single flag. The victorious Noblemen, now owners by way of conquest of the land, began to call themselves Señores (Lords) and to exercise the rights as such in their numerous landholdings (solariegos) and in others newly carved for the Goth Noblemen who had lost their land and palaces [elsewhere in Spain]. These Noblemen originated the new lineages of the Spanish Nobility, which together with the new Hispano-Roman strain constitute the most distinguished, powerful, and Ancestral Houses (casas solariegas) that grace the history of Spain from those times, reconquering the fatherland inch-by-inch and copiously showering it with their blood.

The RON family is counted among these families and Houses (casas solariegas). The authors of histories of the Nobility (nobiliarios) have copious and abundant entries about the RON family where they describe its antiquity, nobility, and its distinguished family tree.

Ambrosio de Morales: (National Library [of Spain]) Manuscripts, SIGa 11.659. Says "The Ron [family] are very good hidalgos:" "They have their House (solar) in the mountains between Asturias and Galicia - very courageous and well linked by marriages."

Tirso de Aviles: In his Nobiliario: "The Lords of the House of Ron were always very principal knights in the Council of Castropol, where they have their casa solar, and in ancient times demonstrated a laudable greatness; for each day, when it was time to eat, they would place a man at the door of their tower and castle and with a corneta (horn) signaled all who wished to eat to come to a set table. Their Arms consist of a quartered shield: In the first quarter, four greyhounds; in the second, a crowned lion; in the third, a man at the door of a castle playing a horn; and in the fourth, two excoriated wolves in a field of gold."

Arms described in this manner were the ones used by DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON OSORIO and served as his insignia during the different wars that he participated in Galicia in the 15th century.

The four greyhounds of the first quarter which are in a field of gold are allegorical figures of the persevering loyalty of TORIBIO FERNANDEZ DE RON AND HIS THREE SONS to KING PELAYO, and of the heroic encouragement that these warriors offered towards throwing the enemy out of the territory.

The lion rampart crowned in gold in a field of red are the arms which KING PELAYO gave TORIBIO FERNANDEZ DE RON AND HIS THREE SONS
9 after naming them Infanzones10.

The man playing the golden horn at the door of a castle on a red field are the arms which from great antiquity was the insignia of the RON family.

The two passant and skinned wolves impaled on poles in a gold field are the arms of the OSORIO family, which belonged to his mother DOÑA GONTRODA OSORIO of the VILLALOBOS and TRASTÁMARA
11 Houses, from which is descended the Marquis of Astorga.

Later, when his grandson of the same name founded the entail (vínculo) and mayorazgo of the HOUSE OF RON in the next century, they were modified by him in the following manner:

In a red field, a masonry castle and on its parapet is an armed and fully armored soldier playing a horn. There is a pine on each side, and in the center of the field is a cauldron over a fire held by a pike supported by two forked poles. The border is also red with a gold horn and the inscription: "A ESTE SON COMEN LOS DE RON" ("With this sound those of Ron eat"), a saying which was already legendary and of common use with the people before appearing on the border of the shield. In this form it appears on a bronze coat-of-arms in the possession of the author of this study
12, which belonged to DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON Y PARGA.

Reconstituted in this manner, this coat-of-arms has been used by his successors until present times, either by themselves or in the first quarter of the coat-of-arms, obeying the clause imposed in the entail (vínculo) founded with Royal Authority, as will be mentioned later.

Alonso Nuñez de Castro: In the Memorial de Don Alvaro Queipo del Llano: "The illustrious HOUSE OF RON is a most ancient lineage originating between Asturias and Galicia; it has its seat between the two kingdoms.

"Their knights were so generous and rich that when they ate they made sound a horn announcing to all that it was time to eat, and they offered a set table to those that arrived, from where originates the saying of that kingdom: "To this song (sound) those of Ron eat
13. Their coat-of-arms consists of a castle wherein in its battlements is a man playing a horn, with the mentioned motto."

Molina: Descripción de Galicia: "The RONES are an ancient lineage of this kingdom between Asturias and Galicia," and continues as does Rodrigo Méndez de Silva and Nuñez de Castro: "RON, lineage through which by their daughters the blood of houses of Spain are glorified."

The Jesuit Gabriel de Henao in his Empyreología; in The Dedication for Don Sancho de Dóriga y Valdéz, "Ne vero Progenotorum tuorum altius et difusius prosecuar heroican seriem, vix in Asturiis eminet eximia aliqua familia, qua in Doriganan aut nom transuderir sanguinem au ab ea non aceperit. Sat sit capitatim recenmise Valdesios et Salas descendentes ab infanti quodan Regis I Bermude filio, quorom Marchionatos de Mirallo devolvitur iam nunc hereditatin iura ad Peñaranda Duces Hispania Magnates: "BERNALDOS QUIROSIOS", Bernardi Carpiensis progeniem de Quibus Asturicens: Adagium "DESPUÉS DE DIOS LA CASA DE QUIRÓS"; MIRANDAS, Tropheo quinque virginium quas in maurorum manibus regnantes I Bermudo, diripuerum insignes Marchiones modo Vallis Carzana et vice Comites Infantatus; ESTRADAS, Comites Vegas Sellana: QUEIPOS DE LLANO, Maiores Vexiliferos Principatus Asturicensis et in Bierzo Toparchas Toreni: RONES, Quorum esplendidisima estirpe numerabat ian olim non nullos Tredecin viros Jacobeus autore Rades de Andrada, et cum Hispaniarum moderaretur Alphonsus Sextus o Legionensibus primusque e Castellanis Regibus, TODA ALVARESIA RON, nupta Pedro Suarez Optimo condiciones inter Gallaecos Equites Praelustrem Fajardorum inchoavit familiam ut consignat Litteris Salazar de Mendoza."

Rades de Andrade: Crónica de las Órdenes Militares: "Those surnamed RON, in whose distinguished family were in ancient times some men with the title and dignity of Thirteen of the Order of Santiago."

Sancho de Dóriga: Memorial de la Casa de Nava: "The most noble and ancient HOUSE OF RON, illustriously celebrated in the Principate of Asturias, of great power and antiquity. Lords of many places having many vassals where they have civil and criminal jurisdiction referred to as "hanging and knife".16 Lords of Ron and of the villages of Cecos, San Antolin, Marentes and Saint Colomba, and the localities of Villamayor Villar, Centenales, Villanueva, San Esteban, Bustelo, Fresno, Alguerdo, Omente, Busante, Lago, San Clemente, La Sierra, Arandojo, Pelliceira, Folgueras, Boiro, Labiada, Rellan, Pousadeiro, Cadagayoso, El Montillo, Carbueiro, Linares, Leituelos, Cuantas, Villajane, Ferreira, Piñeira, Dou, Baldebueyes, Marcellana, Fontaos, Cotos de Bustarbelle, and La Brañota. They are presented17 with the benefits of Tormaleo, of Taladrid, of San Antolin, and many others."

Trelles y Villademoros: Asturias Illustrada: "RON, ancient house of Asturias of whose splendor are noted by the genealogists.
18 The lords of this house own many estates in Asturias and many señorios and vassals, and the coat-of-arms that they use are those referred to by Tirso de Avilés.

Pellicer: Memorial de Don Fernando de los Rios: Noting that in Spain the coat-of-arms of the Rolandos of Aragon contain a horn, as does those of the Rolands of France, adds: "also the knights with surname Bedmar, which according to tradition descend from the RON family, whose first insignia was the horn. Said house and castle of RON is one of the most splendorous of Asturias and Galicia of which the greatest of genealogists have written about; since ancient times they played a horn or cornet from the height of the castle when it was time to eat. This was done in those (ancient) times and because it is not practical now, they use (this symbol) for their coat-of-arms."

The reverend P. Rosignoli in his work "Verdades Eternas"
19 translated from Tuscan says: "There was in Spain a noble family whose surname was DE RON that used a trumpet in its coat-of-arms with the following motto: "LOS DE RON SIEMPRE COMEN A ESTE SON".20

The eminent mystic gives an arbitrary and capricious -- although favorable -- interpretation, which is easy to deduce:

The RON HOUSE, being a feudal house with a great number of vassals made a levy of them when they had to declare war to their enemies or when they had to come to the aid of their allies. The Fuero
21 to which the RONES were bound required the RONES to incur the expense of maintaining and equipping their vassals from the moment that their forces were mobilized until the time that they were returned to their homes. The RONES summoned their people by means of a horn of great dimensions (which is in the possession of the author of this study). The recruits [were drawn from a large distance] and were so numerous that they did not fit in the castle and adjoining villages, but instead had to be lodged in nearby places. For this reason, they had to be summoned with a powerful sound like that which emanates from a large horn blown with great strength. The HOUSE OF RON, which in the fifteen century could amass 1,500 vassals armed for war could only muster a company for the war with Italy.22 Had times changed? [Yes!] Feudalism was dead!

The illustrious Galician and erudite academician Señor Villamil y Castro when describing the splendid luxury displayed by the Lords of Galicia in the fifteenth century says that the Count of Altamira brought with him a contingent of 30 squires and 50 peons and about 10 or 12 pages and other servants and a pair of trumpet players. The celebrated Señor Diego de Andrade always had with him drum and timbrel players and 30 peons, and his father Fernan Pérez de Andrade had 20 squires and 50 peons and 2 or 3 trumpet players and many pages, and adds: "But this display of luxury was far behind that displayed by the RONES, for every time that they ate, Molina de Málaga states, they ordered the playing of a horn through the streets so that anyone who would like to eat could come to the RON house, and this originated the Galician refrain: A ESTE SON COMEN LOS DE RON (TO THIS SOUND THOSE OF RON EAT)." He states that the purpose of the call of the horn was to amass warriors, and it did not necessarily imply that poor travelers and pilgrims which presented themselves for their corresponding portion were admitted.

Limiting surnames to patronymics and familiar names instead of using ancestral names or names of manors24 was an ancient usage here (as was in other nations), borrowed undoubtedly from the Romans, who stylized things in this manner. Ancestral and manor names, however, were already in use as exemplified by many cases. The preference of using patronymics and the careless use of ancestral and manor names makes it very difficult -- although not impossible -- to show a family's antiquity beyond the tenth and eleventh century, when they were customarily used with greater regularity. As proof of this, we provide examples of only a few Asturian, Galician, and Leonese surnames from which the Spanish Nobility originates.

The de Rivadeneira, who originate from Queen Claudia Lupa, daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar and his first wife, Cornelia, daughter of Senator Cinna, who was left in Spain during Caesar's second visit from which he went to fight and triumph in Rome. Claudia Lupa founded an ancestral home in Galicia marrying Lobo Lobesio, Lord of the Castle of Lupario (adjoining Padrón), and whom Emperor Augustus made Regulo of Galicia. Their son, Lobesio Rivano while in the vicinity of Bouzas celebrating his marriage to Caya Valeria, daughter of Caya Lobia and Puctonio Marcelo (also from a family of Regulos of Galicia and Lord of the Formíneo Castle) witnessed the arrival of the ship in which the disciples of Santiago (Saint James) were bringing the remains of the body of the Apostle. He entered the sea on his horse to meet them, covering himself completely with vieiras
25 and saw an apparition on high of the sign of the Cross. This was the cause of his adopting this sign as his emblem and the reason why he and his family converted to Christianity. Leaving their palaces of Castro Lupario and of Burgos de Libredón to bury the Apostle and lodge the disciples, they moved their manor to the shores of the Neira River (Rio Neira), taking as surname the name of their new locality, but conserving their emblem as they now appear on their coat-of-arms.

The Bolaños, who proceed from this same family of Castro Lupario and Rivadeneira. When in the times of Bermudo II around the year 989 Almanzor made his first incursion into Galicia (or in 997 when he solidified this first incursion by a second one, this time while receiving support from the Counts who were dissatisfied with the King, and managed with this conquest to take Santiago, destroy the Sanctuary of the Apostle, and destroy Galicia), the city of Lugo was being defended by Sancho Diaz de Rivadeneira. This Sancho Diaz de Rivadeneira, using the well-known stratagem of the bolo and año liberated the city from the Moorish siege. For this reason, he dropped his ancestral manorial surname and took that of Bolaño in remembrance of this event, composed of the two Galician words, a surname now used by the men of Torés and their large lineage.

The de Miranda, who in the days of Rodrigo I Alvar Fernández de Miranda came to the aid of five damsels, freeing them from the power of the Moors, who were either taking them as tribute or who took them by force.

The de Figueroa, who verified this act in a different occasion and who proceed from Pedro Suarez de Figueroa, who fought in the Battle of Clavijo and who was the son of Count Suera Suarez, mentioned in the Chronicles of Yepes y Sota.

The Fuertes, who in the days of Alfonso II fought in the Battle of Lutos (also called Llamas del Mouro), defeating in the field called the Killing (field) the Chieftain Mugahit or Mugaret (who is called by both names in the chronicles). They were thus enthroned by King Alfonso in the Castles of Cangas. Of their descendants were: Fuertes Sanches de Cangas, who in 846 defeated in the Battle of Narcea (in the vicinity of Cangas de Tineo) Count Nepociano, who was attempting to usurp the kingdom from Don Ramiro I. Justez Fuertes, who succeeded in the government of Cangas in 931 and his son Fuertes Justez who was one of the principal Lords of the Kingdom as confirmed by Royal Letters of Ramiro II. He was deputized by the knights of Asturias to demand the King's presence (who was at the time in Leon) to face the sons of Fruela II who had taken over the government with support of many knights who viewed with disgust that King Ramiro was using the title of King of León instead of King of Asturias as his forebears were titled. Morales says that from that time the king began using the title of King of Asturias and León. Surero Fuertes, who in 976 confirms a privilege with the Richmen
26 which Morales notes in Book 17 of his chronicles. Fuertes Diaz, who also confirms in 996 a patent from the Church of Oviedo offered by Bermudo II in which he makes a copious donation27 to the Monastery of Saint Pelayo. Gonzal Fuertes, of whom is mentioned in the Becerro Book of the Cathedral of Oviedo, and many others of this surname who lived in Asturias about his time and afterwards principally in Cangas de Tineo, as noted by Luis Alfonso Carvallo in his work Antiguedades y Cosas Memoriales de Asturias.

The Valdés, of the most distinguished nobility with its three principle branches, de Torres de San Cucado, de Salas, and de Veleña, who originate from Valto Diaz, descendant of the Baltos of the Royal Blood of the Visigoths, a most distinguished knight of during the reign of Ordoño I, who gave him as a Señorio the territory of Lauriaca (Luarca) in 858, and whose daughter Froila Valtez married Faralando, a descendant of Velchites and his wife Flora, daughter of Diego Porcello, founder of Burgos. From this illustrious lineage descend very distinguished knights and famous magnates, in which is found: Diego Melendez Valdés, called "The Brave", who executed the heroic task of defeating in a tourney in the presence of King Enrique II the three French knights who had defeated the strongest champions of Castille. And the famous patrician Don Fernando de Valdés y Salas, Archbishop of Seville, Inquisitor General, Governor of the Kingdom, and founder of the University of Oviedo.

The Menendez de Valdés, who originate from Don Hermenegildo Menendez, Count of Presares, who was married to Princess Doña Paterna, sister of Queen Doña Elvira, wife of Alfonso III. They were the founders of the double monastery of Sobrado, where both took the habit of San Benito
28. They were the parents of the famous Don Sisnando Menendez, Bishop of Compostela, who fought against the Normans in Fornelos, and grandparents of Saint Rosendo, Bishop of Mondoñedo at the age of 18, and successor in Compostela of his uncle Don Sisnando, and who also triumphed over the Normans who in those days continuously devastated the coasts of Galicia. He was also the founder of the Monastery of Celanova, where he died in 977. The descendants of this house were Counts of Presares and Ricos-hombres of the Kingdom, and Count Don Menando González Menendez, Governor of the Kingdom of León, and tutor of King Alfonso V, who married his daughter Doña Elvira Melendez. She was the mother of Bermudo III and of his sister, Doña Sancha, who succeeded him in the throne and who married Don Fernando I of Castille, being the first Kings of Castille and León. Another son of these Counts and brother of Queen Doña Elvira was the progenitor of the House of Valdés de San Cucado, and General Don Juan Melendez de Valdés (brother of Diego Melendez de Valdés -- The Brave) and of Pedro Melendez de Valdés, Lord of the Towers of San Cucado, married Doña Elvira Menendez, and they continued the House of Menéndez de Presares, Lords of San Andrés de Cornellana de Gijón, from whose House came many Generals and Admirals of the Seas, and their House received the post of Perpetual Regidor of Gijón.

The Osorios, who descend from Luis Osorio, Alferez Mayor of King Ramiro I, who carried the King's standard in the Battle of Clavijo, according to Yepes in his chronicle, and whose successors have privileged seats in the Cathedral of León and whose representative, as Alferez Mayor of the Kingdom, carries the city's pennant during solemn acts. Of Martín Osorio, who was one of the judges of the case of El Cid against the Infantes de Carrión, of Gutierre Osorio (The Count Saint), founder of the Monastery of Lorenzana in Mondoñedo. In the successors of this house (in its different branches) are linked the Señorios of Villalobos, Fornelos, Cabrera y Ribera, Valcarce, Corullón, Trastámara, Altamira, Lemos, Sarria, and Villalba. They are Marquises of Astorga, and Sarria, and Counts of Lemos, Altamira, Villalba, and Andrade.

The Aguilar, whose progenitor, Men Gómez, entered Portugal with Enrique de Lorena, who gave his son Don Gueda the ancestral house of Aguilar, where he founded his family according to Ocariz, the Count Don Pedro of Portugal and Alvaro Ferreira. Their branches extended throughout Portugal, Sobrado de Aguilar near Lugo and Burón in Fonsagrada, in the place of San Pedro del Rio.

The Pimentel, who all have the same origin as Alfonso Fernandez Pimentel also entered Portugal with Count Don Enrique in 1090. Jerónimo de Aponte and Salazar de Castro refer to this person as the progenitor of this family.

The Dóriga, who proceed from Alorio Rodriguez, who was named Lord of the Valley of Dóriga after defeating Count Nepociano near Cornellana in 852 in the days of Ramiro I, who six years before lost the forts of Cangas on the banks of the Narcea.

The de Lemos, surname of the most ancient original nobility of the valley of that name in Galicia, and who preserved the name since the beginning, when the progenitor of this lineage, Vasco Lopez de Lemos in 740 assisted Alfonso I in the conquest of Lugo. His son, Lope Lopez de Lemos, Lord of the Valley of Lemos, built his Sober Castle which to this day remains in the family. His grandson Fernan Lopez de Lemos fought against the Moors, tearing from their grip twelve damsels that they carried away by reason of the ominous tribute. The arms of this house were a silver bezant, and since then the added another twelve, so that presently their shield contain thirteen silver bezants on a red field. He was followed by Diego Lopez de Lemos, who served King Alfonso II in the Battle of Santa Cristina against the disloyal Moor Mahammmed (Carvallo calls him Mahamut), and his immediate successor, Alonso Lopez de Lemos, stood besides King Don Ramiro against the usurper Count Nepociano. King Don Ramiro gave him a grant in Santiago dated in 847 confirming to him the land of Lemos as his ancestors had been its settlers. From these beginnings they have held the eminent post that corresponds to them by their high position as Lords of Sober, of Ferreira, of Amarante, of Pombeiro, Counts of Amarante, of Camarasa, of Castrojeriz, and of Ribadavia.

And many families as these, which would be tedious to enumerate, but which are not unknown to those knowledgeable of genealogical material.

Regarding the RON surname, tradition and history indicate that TORIBIO FERNANDEZ DE RON and his three sons held with the INFANTE DON PELAYO and other Asturian territorial lords against the victorious power of the Saracen hordes, the glorious and terrible battle held in LA PEÑA, which had its end in Mount Ausava with the ineffable victory at Covadonga, which shattered the power of the triumphant and war-hardened Mauritanians and begins the era of the eight centuries of warfare, beginning the epic of the Reconquest of Spain.

To this most important event TORIBIO FERNANDEZ DE RON contributed as one of the principal chieftains with his three sons and many knights who followed his standard and with which he contributed efficiently to the brilliant victory and to the election of the INFANTE DON PELAYO. And when he was elected King in the field of Re Pelao (King Pelayo) and lifted on his shield in the manner of the Goths, PELAYO named TORIBIO FERNANDEZ and his three sons Infanzones, which was the highest title used at that time (until in 774 King DON SILO created that of Rico-hombre, which today has evolved into Grande de España
29 since in the 16th century King Don Carlos I, Emperor of Germany and King of the Romans elected twenty Ricos-hombres to this title).

PELAYO also gave TORIBIO FERNANDEZ his coat-of-arms, consisting of a natural lion rampant, as they appear in the inscription as being the arms of RON in a sepulcher found in the center of the Descalced Carmelite Church in Madrid, as written by Don Miguel de Salazar in his Nobiliario, folio 32 (SIG.a 12,600). And because the west of Asturias was being occupied by the Moors, he also gave him land one league from Covadonga where he could establish his house, as affirmed by the chronicler and King of Arms Don Antonio Gomez Arevalo, for as long as his lands were not free from the oppression of the Moors, who had occupied the western valleys where from ancient times they had their ancestral lands.

TORIBIO FERNANDEZ DE RON was the son of ORBITA FERNANDEZ, who [was the individual who] set out in 711 with his people to defend his territory against the Moors, and who learned while on the trail of the complete defeat of the army of Rodrigo in the Battle of Guadalete. Because of this, he returned to his lands with his entire contingent of Asturians, Gallicians (Gallegos), and Basques numbering 30,000 which had assembled against the invaders, a group which became very useful to PELAYO in the defense of LA PEÑA and in the Battle of Covadonga. [This information is obtained from] "Don Rodrigo se fué contra Tarif."
30 (Referring to Tarik-ben-Zeyyad, who while being a Lieutenant of Muza came at the head of an army of Berbers with whom he fought in Guadalete against King Don Rodrigo.31 Abu-Zara-Tarif-ben-Zache was a client of Muza who ordered him to disembark in Tarifa with 100 horsemen and 400 men on foot in four ships provided by Count Don Julián.)

The chronicle states: "Don Rodrigo se fué contra Tarik, sin agoardar as compahas de Galiça, Asturias, Viscaya, e Vascos, sinom com-as de Castela e Septa; Fasta toudos LXX, mil Cristaos, e istos toudos, disarmados caxique; eran poucos los de elas e sóo lebabas paose ondas ... as companhas de Galiça, Asturias, Viscaya, e Vascos caminaban e se volveron para defender os pobos, e todas estas companhas, serien fasta XXX milque despois foron boos a PELAYO".
32 In this manner it is written by DON SERVANDO, BISHOP OF ORENSE in his chronicle. As he himself declares, he was the Confessor of Don Rodrigo and later of DON PELAYO, was constantly present in court and was a witness of the defeat at Guadalete as well as of the Reconquest. Of all of these events he has left the most complete information. Because of the high culture and social category of the narrator, his chronicle offers the highest degree of reliability available to judge the veracity of the referred events. "E eu Servando coego de Ourenes Maestre en Dreytos e Santa Teologia e de reraçon, de Nuñez e de Ferrando e bon Rey Chindasvinto, e morto Obispo Filmeira os coegos da Sede de San Martin e Santa Maria me feceron Obispo".33 This most important codex, written by its author in Latin in Latin-Gothic script, translated to Gallego in Lombard characters by Pedro Seguino, also Bishop of Orense, and transcribed in cursive script by the distinguished historian and critic DON JOSE PELLICER Y TOBAR, KNIGHT OF THE ORDER OF SANTIAGO, PRINCIPAL CHRONICLER OF CASTILLE AND KING OF ARMS OF KING FELIPE IV. It bears the following signature: "En Ourentes anno de noso Salvador DCCXXXIX === Servandus Ferrandez, sub XPT nomine - EPS Auriensi === Gardingus scripsit et notavit."34

Hypercritical authors and critical iconoclasts, of which there have always been many specimens, ignoring the great antiquity made plain by the characters used in the manuscript, have tried to diminish its prestige. But what is certain is that the chronicle has signs characteristic of the most palpable antiquity, without relying on the authority lent to it by the assent of the illustrious Pellicer, who conscientiously examined the originals and who subsequently offered them their well deserved praise. And although Don Pedro Seguino and others, making improper use of their name may have introduced some interpolations in their commentaries, the document is fundamentally indisputable and the relation of events are very exact. Although some may be want to doubt the authenticity of the codex, claiming that it was written at a later date, it would still not be a deceitful chronicle. It carries within its content the unmistakable seal of truth, and we must recognize its manifest conformity with the [other] Latin and Castillian chronicles that are known to us at this time.

ORBITA FERRANDEZ's sister was DOÑA LUZ VITULA FERRANDEZ, and both were children of VITULO FERRANDEZ, Captain of the Protospatarian Army of Galicia, Lord of Monte Ouroso (Monterroso) and "Senhor de moitas terras."
35 He was Lord of Cintos-Trasancos-Trastámara, Hiernia-Volo, Luctonio Castle (Monforte), Lesthes (Limia) Amphiloquia (Orense), Helena (Pontevedra). "E tinha sua fortaleza e Paço e Divisa n-a parte d-os Arcos de Asma de Chantada con toda sua terra a mandar fasta Douro e Minho, e Gran Senhor36" of whom there is mention in the conciliate decrees of Toledo 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, where he is referred to as an illustrious man, Count of the Patrimonies and Duke. He proceeded from the blood of COUNT FERALANDO of the Patrimonies of Galicia and of COUNTESS NUNIA.

DOÑA LUZ was married to Fabila, Duke of Cantabria and they had as children DON PELAYO
37, DOÑA LEYICA (who unfortunately died at the hands of SORRED FERNANDEZ), DOÑA TERESA, who King Witiza (ordered her) married to said SORRED FERNANDEZ, DOÑA ORMESINDA or RECILONA, who was raped by Mumuza, Governor of Gijón, and DOÑA MARIA, who married the Goth Teodorico. And not withstanding these numerous descendants and the persevering fidelity constantly shown to her husband (which inspired Rodrigo Méndez de Silva to honor her with the title of "Castisima Matrona"), DOÑA LUZ was inopportunely harassed by the constant amorous solicitudes and persistent snares of King Witiza, who seeing his intentions refused made her unfortunate husband (Fabila, Duke of Cantabria) the victim of his irascible rancor, avenging his unjust anger by inflicting him a blow to the head which caused his death after a short time. "Witiza ferió a Fabila con un pao, e chagolo moito mal na cabeza, e morreo o Duque de aquela firida, por amor d-a sua mulher, que era moy fermosa, y por eso lo firió."38 Not content with this attempt, Witiza (who hated the line of Chindasvinto39 because he was jealous that the Gothic Nobility affiliated with them and because they confronted him with perseverance even though he constantly persecuted them), exiled Fabila's family to Tuy, where they remained, inhabiting the palaces of Gundemaro all the years that his reign lasted. The exception was Fabila's son DON PELAYO, who took the opportunity of this exile to go on a pilgrimage40 to the Holy Land, and as late as the sixteenth century the Temple of the Holy Sepulcher conserved a holy vessel as remembrance of his visit and liberality. "DON PELAYO por temor de Witiza, fez sua romeria a Jerusalem e soterrado Witiza volveó a Espanha."41

[Witiza] took away the post of Protospatario from PELAYO, who had inherited it as successor to his grandfather VITULO and gave it to Count Don Julián42, his favorite, who was Governor of Ceuta. Ceuta was a strong fortress that had belonged to Rome and which the Roman Emperors had granted to the family of Count Julián because they were members of a branch of the Roman Julian family that had established themselves in Spain since ancient times. Count Don Julián, had married Countess Hermesinda Fandina, Lady of Consuegra and Esparteria (Cartagena) and bastard daughter of King Egica. She was therefore a sister of King Witiza and of Don Oppas, Bishop of Tuy and later of Seville, "e fez a traiceón po que non lle deron o Arzobispado de Toledo"43 which he viciously retained.

With the help of the Romans
44 Don Rodrigo was proclaimed and verified as King of the Goths45. Don Rodrigo, son of Teodoredo and his wife, Doña Recilona sister of Fabila and both grandchildren of Chindasvinto and his wife Riceberga (who was of Hispanic and Suevan (of Galicia) origin) then called to his side his cousin the INFANTE DON PELAYO and declared him Captain of the Espartarios to compensate him for the grievance that Witiza inflicted upon him by depriving him of this post. Although deprived of the post, Count Don Julián continued being the favorite of the new king, although the motives were too humiliating for the distinguished count: "Don Rodrigo querie moito a-o Conde Don Julián e a la condiesa Fandina que era moito fermosa, e Don Rodrigo facia pecado con ela e a tinha a seu mandar; e o propio con una filha chamada Cava Florinda46 que era de extremada fermosura, e o Rey a persuadeu a seu amor, e nom contento c-o que tinha con a may, se deitou con ela, e fez n-ela un filho que e criou eb Evora de Lusitania chamado Alverico."47

Count Julián patiently put up with these affronts to his honor and took vengeance later with a new and greater stain on his honor, betraying Spain, the land of his consort, contributing with his people to the consummation of her total disaster, going over to her enemies in the moment of the nation's greatest misfortune.

After the fatal defeat of Guadalete after a vehement battle that lasted eight days maintained from sunrise to sunset (November 11 of 711)
48, "O Rey Rodrigo fez maravillos iste dia;"49 notwithstanding this, the remains of the Gothic army was dismembered and the ruin of the entire nation was consummated.50

IN THE CHRONICLE OF THE MOOR RASIS (Ahmed-ben-Mohammad-ben-Muza). Abu-Bequer -- Ar-Razi -- of surname At-Tarifi (The Chronicler) says, "Et aquel fijo de Muza fué ome de mui buena palabra, et mui esforçado et de mui buen seso, et llegó a grand alteza, que non ovo en Hispanis, vila nin castillo, nin alqueris que a él non obedeciese, et de él miedo nom oviese ... salvo aquellos que fueron, et se acogieron a la sehra (sierra) de Asturias".
51 The scene describing this lamentable state of affairs, as told in the Chronicle of the Wise King52 cannot be more disastrous: "Los nobles et fijosdalgo cayeron en cativo, los principes et altos homes ydos son en fonta (verguenza) et en denostro, e los buenos combatientes perdieronse en extremo, los que antes andaban libres, entonces tornanse en siervos..."53 "Os que fugimos," continues the cited BISHOP OF ORENSE as related by DON PEDRO SEGUINO, "serien dous mil, ca era tanta a grita voceria que cada unh cuidaba de si, e moitos de isos eran homes de orden...E DON PELAYO tamen se achou n-esta bataiha comigo e con outros Presbiteros que fugimos a Galiçia que querie moito a os galegos, que por unha parte era de iles...DON PELAYO era home de moito traballo, fermoso, de cara large, ollos grandes de color da vela, o cabello largo, barba castanha, las pernas ben feito; as maos lomgas; os deidos un poco longos y soo tinha na mao isquierda o dedo menino maneado po habelo lisiado no viaje de Africa onde il fai despois d-a perdiçaom de Espanha."54

The Academy of History in its Memorias (Volume II, page 378) makes a finished portrait of PELAYO: "In the mountains of Ausava, the refugees elected DON PELAYO, son of Fabila, Duke of Cantabria and believed to be closely tied with parental links to the previous Gothic kings. He was a prince who was needed by reasons of necessity: forceful, animated, levelheaded, knowledgeable, and as required by the circumstances of the times: just, moderate, religious, and befitted with all the conditions to make him stand out, which opened the road to his election.

His wife GAUDOSIA FERRANDEZ, daughter of COUNT TRASAMUNDO FERRANDEZ was in Tuy since their exile, and continued living there until the opportunity took her to Asturias to be proclaimed Queen when DON PELAYO was proclaimed King.

As soon as DON PELAYO arrived in Galicia fleeing from Rodrigo's battle, "fabló a os Cabaleiros Nobres de Soar de quem il se preciaba moito... e se juntaron distos, CXXXX soares de Casas Nobres, e fosen axudar como asi o feceron, e de Galicia foe cabaleria, que nom quedaron sin´ón Velhos e Pueros... e despois que DON PELAYO fablou con toudos os homes Nobres, e se fué para Asturias... e PELAYO se estuvo en Galiça tres Mes para facer estas contas com secreto e desposo toudo para o tempo que fosen avisados, acudiesem a aquela parte onde conviniese."

From Galicia he passed on to Asturias, where the Gallician confederates were arriving with others from diverse places. These included Gothic elements that were also flowing into Asturias, hard pressed from all sides by the vigorous incursions of the Saracens, who did not leave a single place in the peninsula free from general occupation. Such is related by the Moor Rasis with [first hand] authority where he writes about the conquest. In the mountains of Asturias PELAYO received Count Aldebrando of Osca, whom he had sent on a mission to Pope Constantine in Rome and to Lombardy and France to seek council from these potentates.

"E foé consello que nomeasem Rey, a que ficiesen ante seus foros: Os navarros e vascos e os d-as a Montanas de Arbe e de Jaca e de toudos os Pirineos co a memoria d-as tiranias de malvado Witiça e Rodrigo, traian escriptas leyes e foros feitos en Sobrarbe moitos boos. E logo os galegos e Asturianos as toumaron, e logo DON PELAYO fez unh raçoamento a toudos, e despois que ouveron ouido, toudos trataron de nomear cabeza que os guiase e logo eligieron por Rey a DON PELAYO e seu capitan e o labantaron n-o escudo como era costume. E ante juron goardarnos os foros escriptosem unha prancha de plomo, e il Prinar Dom Urban com os Obispo que alá nos achabamos o ungimos com-o Crisma e feita a unción se armou cabaleiros e armou muytos nobres de Galiça e de outras partes; e foi no ano cando andaba d-a creaçon d-o noso Senhor J. C. DCCXIII anos. Alguns queren anadir dous anos adiante, mais digo eu Don Pedro que non se juzgue por iles senom po isto que refiere Don Servando como testigo de Olhos. E logo oe alçada por Reino GUADIOSA su mulher, filha de Conde TRASAMUNDO FERRANDEZ Conde d-os Patrimonios de Galiça. E logo como foé unto po Rey de touda Espaanha començo a lebantar bandeira."
56: and joining the people of Galicia, Asturias and Basques, began the war by skirmishing with the Moors (who had their seat in Gijón) along the frontier lands. The Berber Munuza (who was Governor), warned Tarik "e logo mandou ende Cordovaque collesen á PELAYO"57 for which he sent as captain the chieftain Alcamán, who was one of the principal leaders of the invaders and who accompanied him from Africa. Alcamán led the powerful army formed to invade and destroy the rebellious Asturians, and taking part in that force was Don Oppas, Bishop of Hispalense58 to use his authority and counsel to assist them in obtaining the surrender of DON PELAYO and his people. As auxiliary troops Alcamán brought those of Count Don Julián which consisted on about 20,000 men. The armed contingent commanded by Alcamán (Abraham) exceeds the respectable number of 188,000 men (as estimated by Bishop Don Servando in his chronicle, as well as Isidore el Pacense, Archbishop Don Rodrigo and Don Lucas de Tuy in theirs). Those of PELAYO only total 9,000, all noblemen of Asturias and Galicia. The peasants (in Pelayo's contingent) were few, and they were neighborhood subject people dedicated to the lowly tasks and who did not intervene in political matters. "Agent é soldados de Alcamán foé CLXXXVIII M: e cristianos IX M soldados."59 In an attempt to win PELAYO by political means, Alcamán dictated a proclamation stating they should ask for justice if Munuza or any other governor had affronted them "que isto o sabia facer".60 But noting that PELAYO insisted in defending himself, he organized his army to attack LA PEÑA, a huge, mass of elevated peaks that form narrow and steep valleys known to us by the name of Picos de Europa (Peaks of Europe), which from its heights, small nuclei of well disciplined troops can defend themselves and inflict damage on a numerous, war-hardened army with advantage. There, PELAYO resisted for three years the continuous and strong blows of Alcamán's army, in the same way that seven centuries before the Astures resisted the spirited pressure and powerful drive of the Roman Legions commanded by Cayo (Gaius) Antistio, Lucio Firmo, and Publio Carisio; by the undefeated Marco Upsanio Agripa and by Caesar Augustus himself, who could not boast of having completely subjugated the Asturian territory to their enslaving yoke (even though they triumphed in Lancia and in Bérgidum), and witnessed their forces exhausted by the fighting and impotent against the unaccostable bastion.61

Having failed in his intent to defeat PELAYO who remained fortified in LA PEÑA, and impatient to achieve the vehemently desired result of "capturing PELAYO", as Tarik had ordered him, Alcamán became more intrepid and valorous than general strategist. He set forth to attack the mountain from a single front which he judged would have a decisive effect. And joining his troops he looked for a path by which he could reach the place where PELAYO was in order to definitely end the war. Not finding a more accessible one than that through the Valley of Cangas and through that of Riera and the bank of the Diva River, he advanced unawares up the valley, putting his trust in the power of his numerous army and in the meager contingent commanded by PELAYO. Either not knowing or ignoring the danger that he exposed himself and his troops to, he thoughtlessly climbed the narrow valley until he reached the foot of Mount Ausava, the outermost cliff of LA PEÑA, where the celebrated and impregnable cave which served as a refuge to an anchorite who worshipped the Virgin Mary was located. It was in that most strategic location that the INFANTE DON PELAYO and his people had amassed, awaiting the imminent assault of the Saracens.

Whoever visits this rustic locale today, presently occupied by ramps crossing in all directions; by parks and gardens; by sumptuous hotels and a profusion of modern houses; by El Cueto, crowned with the svelte and modern cathedral; by the splendid solemnity of the cult; by the abundance of rich jewels which have been endowed to it; and specially by the ostentatious triptych of admirable workmanship made by the famous Asturian smith Sr. Granda can hardly imagine the rough appearance of the bulwark that materialized in front of the cowardly and surprised eyes of the Moroccans.

A collection of illustrations would greatly help those that have not had the opportunity of personally visiting that rough territory to understand the places where these extraordinary and admirable events took place, since they are incomprehensible when relying only on the content of the chronicles.

Within sight of the cave and it's surroundings, Alcamán realized his imprudence and sent Don Oppas as spokesman to propose the surrender of the besieged. But DON PELAYO, scorning the proposals, organized the defense by distributing his people across the heights of Mount Auseva and the surrounding peaks, remaining in the cave with 500 well-armed knights intent on withstanding the attacks of the adversaries. "DON PELAYO animou a-os seus fortemente aunque moitos estaban desarmados e se ciscaban de medo, vendo ante si tanto mour e Cristiaos Julianistas e outros Reegados e Mixtarabes que era espanto. DON PELAYO repartia su gente po los lugares circunvecinos, e soó se quedou con dous mil galegos e Asturianos e Montaneses ben armados, na Cova d'o Monte Auseva, que le puxeran nome de Santa Maria de Covadonga, todos proveidos de provimentos. Digo eu Servando que PELAYO non se quedou na Cova si nom con D homes de Galiçia y Asturias no fondo con é, e os mais arriba... Los mouros por la fada do monte, chegaron a Cova e como viron a esperece procuraron oubiar a dano que podie soceder y encargaron á D. Oppas que era moito sagaz, e fes unha arenga e raçoamento a DON PELAYO e a los cabaleiros de Cova com sotis raçoes, que se entreigasen, que non podien escapar de mortos ou presos, que no ejercito arabe venien cento ochenta mil mouros, e chamandolos loucos e outras moitas afrentas e a Obispo de Iria Flavia do Padrón e a min Don Servando nos chamou mil afebas para que predicasemos a PELAYO que deixase aquela loucura."

DON PELAYO replied with a sharp message, slapping their faces with their treasonous actions and immoderate lives, rejecting any treaty or dealings, stating that he preferred the offered death to seeing himself humiliated. Viewing this, the Moors began to attack the people in the cave, assaulting it with darts, lances and all types of throwing weapons. The Moorish army could only attack on a narrow front, however, constricted by the narrowness of the valley. It then became obvious that their attack failed and that their throwing weapons had the opposite effect, for the besieged men charged out against them. Suddenly, a thunderstorm came upon the scene. The thunder claps which in those valleys resounds awesomely, coupled with the sound of war horns blown by the war-hardened mountaineers from the surrounding peaks, and above all the superstitious character of the Moors (which came to believe that Divine Intervention was against them), produced an immense panic which translated into the most disorganized of retreats. PELAYO's hosts took advantage of the rout by launching the most furious and efficient attack from all sides, throwing down upon them from all the heights that dominated that valley all kinds of throwable weapons and stones which in those mountains copiously abound. The terrified Moors, impeded by the mountain from going forward and unable to go back because the avalanches blocked their path, tried to make their way down the steep slopes of Mount Ausava in order to reach the banks of the Deva River. And in a place called Argayo de Cosgaya, situated in the Valdévaro Valley, on the border between Asturias and the Province of Santander, between Sostres and Liébana, where signs of the event can still be seen, an immense boulder came loose, taking with it all that were on it and crushing beneath its collapse those who had reached the plain (of the valley), sealing in the rest and placing them at the mercy of the victors, who proceeded with a butchery and devastation which is related in some chronicles.

DON PELAYO and the hidalgo Ramiro Ferrándiz Boyers (from whom the de Caso family descend), saw this day the miraculous Cross which appeared to them in the heavens. Because of this, DON PELAYO cut some wood from an oak tree and fashioned himself a cross which from that time on became his standard, replacing the lion rampant which had until then been his emblem. Today that cross (which was splendidly decorated and enriched with gold and precious stones by King Alfonso II, The Great) sits in the Treasure House of the Cathedral of Oviedo, and that same cross is used as the coat-of-arms of Asturias. "DON PELAYO adorou a Santa Signal e cortou d-un roble outra Cruz e a tomou por sua divisa.

In this enterprise, Alcamán died. Don Oppas was captured and executed. Munuza was killed in the vicinity of Olalles while trying to escape by reaching the port of Tarna and leaving there for Castille. "Onde Noso Senhor fez un miragro (it is written on the margin) é Don Boer veu a Santa Cruz no ayre que tudo con que tiraban se foe contra eles e os mactaban e sayron d'a Cova e foron tras d'os mouros e mataron XX mil de eles e os mais que estaban n'o monte foron fugindo a o Campo Liebaniense po ende corre el rio Deva e no pago Cousegada se foe con tuodos o Rio, que este dia fez Deus dous milagros. Alcaman morreu e Oppas foe preso con Torisio seu primo, (another renegade Bishop who accompanied him) e po conselho dos cabaleiros foron de parecer que tan malvados homes se posesen a cola de IIII
64 cabalos, como o feceron, e ca unh levou coarto, e os despeñarn c'os cabalos de unhas penas, e asi pagaron os traydores, aunque o Santo Obispo Don Lovesindo de Silva, (who was the Bishop of Iria) ome de grandes saberes, nom quizera que asi os traitaram. Moitos rebentaron fugindo. Munuza o mataron no pago Alabiense. Esta postrimera pelexa foe anno DCCXIII."65

Count Julián, who was Roman and not Hispanic66, as was said before (and he was Count of Ceuta by way of the Romans, and his government corresponded to that patrimony, retired to his dominions, where the Saracens held him in misery by taking away his lands. His wife the Countess was stoned to death. Regarding Florinda (called by the Moors Caba, which means bed female67), tradition hold that she died in Målaga by throwing herself off a tower.

With Alcamán's army defeated and his combatants dead or wounded, the surrounding territory became totally free of Moors. They did occupy the western part of Asturia, precisely where TORIBIO FERNANDEZ and DON PELAYO had their señorios and homes, for all the (contemporary) authors agree that these were situated in the region where the Pesicos Valleys were "which were the furthermost west of the Asturian Mountains and according to the Egyptian Geographer Claudius Ptolomy occupied the lands between the Naviluvión (Navia) and the Naelo (Narcea)", comprising therefore what is today the Consejo of Pesoz, along with that of Grandas de Salime, Allande, Tineo, Cangas de Tineo, Luarca, and Navia.

The lands of TORIBO FERNANDEZ and his successors is still centered in the village of Pesoz, capital of the Council of that same name, where they are the owners of the ancient ancestral castle that exists there and is called the RON CASTLE, along with the adjacent Palace, grounds and Señorios corresponding to it. Another very ancient ancestral home of RON was found in San Antolín de Ibias, capital of the Consejo de Ibias. LUIS ALFONSO CARVALLO in his ANTIGUEDADES Y COSAS MEMORABLES DE ASTURIAS, says the following about these: "In the Council of Ibias there is a high hill that is called RON, which in the primitive language of the aborigines of Asturias meant "height" which refers to this mountain, where the ancient tower of RON is found." Falling into ruin in previous times, on its foundations DOÑA ALDONA RODRIGUES DE IBIAS built the Parochial Church of San Antolín de Ibias in 1464 and in the 16th century her granddaughter DOÑA SANCHA DE RON Y BERNALDO DE QUIRÓS built the Seigniorial Tower, which to this day is referred to as the PALACE OF DOÑA SANCHA which today corresponds to the House of Tormaleo. Other ancestral houses of RON passed on to different families, which because of the rigors of time that confuses everything have lost their connection to the family of origin.

The ancestral house of PELAYO was in Tineo and Cangas de Tineo, which although today form two different units, in those days it was joined and belonged to DON PELAYO, as it belonged later to his successors.

<PICTURE: Partial view of Cangas de Tineo; its coat of arms; that of Pelayo>

Tineo's name and arms did not diminish, because it continued having the respect of its children. Cangas de Tineo, although "village which is in the country the center and the heart of the highest nobility and which carries in its very name the title of illustrious", has a less happy fate than its neighbor Tineo, as its arms were abandoned to the power of an individual who became its owner, and by the passivity of the authorities and lack of consciousness by both, no objection was made when it was injured by the chisel of a stonecutter. And with regards to its name, it was changed without any reasonable motive to one that is extravagant and capricious, going against all the respect due to its history and traditions, and by inexcusable weakness the government legalized it, consummating this bold procedure.

The coat-of-arms corresponding to Tineo and Cangas de Tineo consisted of the lion rampant of PELAYO, of gold on a field of red (Tineo) and the same lion rampant on a blue field (Cangas de Tineo). Both had a corresponding castle, a distinction which was granted upon their division into two different councils in the 15th century.

The only remains from those ancient times is the remembrance of COUNT DON PEDRO PELAEZ, Lord and Governor of Tineo (and therefore, also of Cangas de Tineo), founder and progenitor of the House of PELAE DE ARGANZA, which united with that of RODRÍGUEZ DE TUÑA in the 15th Century created the House of CABO EL RIO. He was a son of the INFANTE DON PELAYO FLOREZ, also Lord of Tineo and grandson of KING DON FRUELA. He is buried (although there is no vestige of it) in the ancient Monastery of San Tirso, founded by the Rodríguez Munión, from whom descend the family of QUEIPO DEL LLANO, and is located in the suburbs of Cangas. As a more graphic memory, the name of an adjacent property and its ancient walls are still called EL PELAYO, being thus very probable that this same place was the Señorio of PELAYO, whose name is still conserved after all this time.

The Coat-of-arms of Cangas de Tineo strengthens what was once said:

Although the verse is very bad and makes the mistake of confounding DON PELAYO with the Infante DON PELAYO FLOREZ, father of DON PEDRO PELAEZ, which (as was said) was Lord of Cangas de Tineo and is buried there, it does serve as a reminder of the belief that the Señorio of PELAYO was located there. This Señorio was for many centuries owned by the successors of the Kings of Castilla and Leon and by way of heredity was disposed of piecemeal in various distributions until in favor of the entail (vínculo) to the heir of the throne it remained included in the Principate of Asturias.

PELAYO, determined to make an incursion to the west, conferred TORIBIO FERNANDEZ the command of the entire infantry as general, a command that his elders (brothers and father) had already held. Both of them headed out to wrest the Moors from the territory, which for its reconquest according to the Moor ABENTARIQUE (Tarif-Aben Tarik) in Chapter 4 of Book 2 of his chronicle, an army of 8,000 men was formed. In Tineo they were detained for some time, for the Moors in their fortress offered major resistance. But being displaced in short order from there allowed PELAYO to continue the expurgation of the land, reaching Cangas de Tineo, where the Moors awaited to oppose them again. PELAYO gave them battle, known by the name of the Battle of Cánicas (the Latin name for Cangas), where the Moors were again defeated "PELAYO retaking Cánicas (a small town) by force of arms," as told by ESTEBAN DE GARIBAY and PERRANTÓN BEUTER. Once taken, PELAYO ordered it fortified with castles and warriors, according to the referred chronicle of ABENTARIQUE, Chapter 47, Book 2, (who claims to have been present) and continued the pursuit to Turmalexeo (Tormaleo), a place where the Romans had maintained a garrison of a Turma (30 horse), from which the name of the area derives. From there, the fleeing Moors crossed the Asturian Cordillera followed by PELAYO to the city that the Romans called Legio Séptima Gémina since that is where they maintained the Legion of that name
68. PELAYO took the place in a furious battle. It was there that PELAYO definitely abandoned the lion of his insignia and the ancient city of Legio transformed its name into León, by which it is presently known.

Very soon thereafter, PELAYO had to abandon his conquest, because Abenramin (who governed Toledo), irritated at the constant conquests of PELAYO and his people put together an army of 12,000 men on foot and 800 on horse to counteract his victories and reinforce the exhausted and beaten Saracen army. With this reinforcement, he returned to leisurely cross the port of Leitariegos to confront PELAYO who awaited him in Cangas de Tineo. There, PELAYO offered such an efficient resistance followed by strong attacks that the Moors found themselves once again defeated. The Moors retraced their steps and retired to Laciana, where they were invaded by pestilence which destroyed the remains of the powerful army.

<PICTURE: Ruins of the ancient Castle of Tineo; its arms>

TORIBIO FERNANDEZ at this time was not accompanying PELAYO, either because he was old, or because he had died, or because he remained guarding his recently reconquered estates. But his three of his sons followed PELAYO. These three, whose names have not been definitely conserved neither by history or tradition where most probably SANDO FERRANDEZ, FORTUN FERRANDEZ, and ORBITA FERRANDEZ, the three Infanzones.

By what has been said above, the Hispanic origin of DON PELAYO is demonstrated, but because there have been some who are intent in considering him a Goth, even after ceding that his father, Duke Fabila had more Hispanic that Gothic blood, it important to note that the Arabs considered him Hispanic. In the narratives of AJBAR MACKMOUA, a collection of traditions from an anonymous author and in the chronicle of the Moor Rasis (already cited) is written: "In Djalikyah (Galicia, which is the name used [by the Arabs] to the region comprising Asturias, Galicia, León and part of the north of Portugal), the whole territory was conquered without any part taken except the PEÑA of BELAY
70 -- THE RUMI." (RUMI is their term for Roman.71) With this term, PELAYO is classified as Hispanic, for the terms "EL KUTI" (the Goth) or "BEN-GOBDOSH" (the son or grandson or descendent of Goths) are not used, which would classify him as a Goth. The Arabs were well aware of the distinction, as there was a constant separation between Goths and Hispanics. Even though there were matrimonial ties between the Goths and Hispanics, their union was never intimate as was with the Romans, and their origins were always distinguished.72

To add to this, ESTEBAN DE GARIBAY in his history, which reviews a selection of Latin chronicles says (Book 10, Chapter 34): "Many great men of our times deny that PELAYO was a Goth, holding as true that the said KING PELAYO was not of the Gothic nation but of Spanish origin."

And if this was not sufficient proof, there is another reason that makes this assertion true: In some of the documents offered by PADRE SOTA written by King Alfonso III in favor of Church of Santiago of Galicia, there is one in which a donation is made of Santa Maria of Tineo in the west of Asturias "in the manner that our uncle Alfonso (The Chaste) of Holy Memory recovered it justly, having been owned by his great-grandfather PELAYO." Had PELAYO been a Goth, he would not have had hereditary property nor ancestral estates in Asturias, as only the natural inhabitants of the region, descendants of the ancient settlers of the Hispanic race did so. Goths never had hereditary lands in Asturias, as it is well known, because the Asturians never recognized the Gothic government, as has been asserted by Spanish and foreign writers, among them Vasco and Paulo Emilio (referred to by Padre Sota). [The Goths knew that] attempting to make them submit by force of arms was highly dangerous, as the Romans had found out (and these events were well known at the time, as traditions of the events were then as have been to this time conserved). [The Goths thus] satisfied themselves with continuing the stipendiary relationship that was already in place [vis-à-vis the Romans], requiring of the proprietors only the taxes and tributes that were normally collected, which consisted of a tenth of the fruits of the land.

Different branches have proceeded from TORIBIO FERNANDEZ DE RON and his sons which have extended their lines through Asturias, Galicia, the mountains of Burgos, and León. They founded many ancestral homes, some of which conserved the original surname. As the reconquest of the kingdom proceeded, they left members of their lineage and ancestral homes in the reconquered lands where they demonstrated their main feats and exerted their greatest effort. From those ancestral homes originated many illustrious men who distinguished themselves at arms and in letters and who fill the pages of histories and Nobiliaries. They obtained the most important and distinguished posts, as were, for example, the Ricos-Hombres of Pendón and Caldera, confirmatories of privileges, Knights of military orders, and other posts of high honor corresponding to the luster of their origin and birth. They also joined their noble blood by way of links of marriage with the most illustrious houses of Asturias, and of the entire nation.

They descended from the family of the FERRANDO, one of the greatest, most robust, and distinguished ancestry, even among the Goths. But they were of pure Hispanic origin, for they proceeded from the race who first populated the country and from FERRANDUS, the powerful chieftain of the Hispanic hordes who made war against the legates of Caesar, whom he defeated in repeated battles. For this reason, they reached an agreement with him regarding the pacification of the territory, and as guarantee of the peace and harmony been established, Emperor Augustus named him Régulo of Galicia. When the Apostle Santiago came to Spain to preach, he visited FERRANDUS in his palace at Plantata (Chantada) and baptized him, converting him to Christianity along with is wife MARCIA NUNEZ (who was from the lineage of the Marcelos (Marcelus), also a family of the greatest distinction), and who was Lady of Cobas de Arsacia.

DON SERVANDO in his chronicle says of her: "Este Señorio, segun acho scripto foe d' unha Senora chamada MARCIA NUNEZ que era de los Marcelos, de donde descendió San Marcelo y Primitiva Marcelo su irmán, mulher de San Segundo. Foe casada con un cabaleiro chamado FERRANDO que era Régulo de Galiça po los Emperadores e tinha moitas terras -- a seu mandar -- e era Senhor d'os Paços de Arcos de Asma (Chantada) e recibeu a Fé do Apostol Santiago, n'os seus Paços e foé de seus discipulos...d'os Paços e linhajes de Galiça e cabaleiros d'ela que eu Servando indigno Obispo de Orense scribo fiele e verdaderamente d'o que achei, sacado d'as Historias, Pepés e Tumbas: e que Dom Pedro sóo o poño como o deixou o Santo Obispo don Servando que vicía después da perdición de Espanha XXIIII anos: Sean como sigue."
73 Where he continues to describe the arms used by the FERRANDEZ used by the descendants of FERRANDO, which the chronicle describes as follows: "E de iste ome descendeu po mulher PELAYO e Chindasvinto Rey Godo e Ario Teodomiro Rey Suevo e outros cabaleiros e San Rosendo, que e d'os Arias que descenden de istos FERRANDEZ o San Fagondo e Primitiva: Traen po divisa 3 barras rouxas en campo de ouro e un Aguila voant de dous cabezas e un Sol e V estelas e un Castillo e un León e unha Tau griega en sinal de Cristianismo. Son d'os antiguos de Espania e de Galiçia."74

He continues to describe the arms of the Marcelos in the following manner: "En Nosa Senhora d'as Cobas de Arsacia hay moitas figuras e as armas dos Marcelos, que e un Leon e unha cabra e cinco Tau a modo de Cruz.75"

The eminent author of ANTIGUEDADES Y COSAS MEMORABLES DE ASTURIAS, Luis Alfonso Carvallo, dedicates two chapters of his notable history pretending to demonstrate that the use of coat-of-arms did not begin before the reign of Alfonso VI, for he says that "until that time we do not find arms engraved in sepulchers, and if any exist in older monuments they have been engraved more recently." These are not coat-of-arms as the author appear to describe -- the defensive weapon held in a knight's arm while in full armor, which they used as signs of heraldry in jousts and tourneys to differentiate one knight from another. They are instead Heralds, as the Royal Dictionary of the Language describes: "a field, surface, or space of various forms, figures, or dimensions where the insignia of a kingdom, city, or family are painted or engraved." Therefore, wherever pieces of armor are stamped, these become coat-of-arms. This meaning is self-evident and do not lead to the wider conclusion reached by the erudite Luis Alfonso Carvallo.

Before the custom of engraving or painting seals on war shields originated, proper coat-of-arms were sculpted on walls of temples and palaces, in door or window jambs, or simply lifted upright by hand on a pole. We must recall that Domingo Pascual, the hero of the Battle of Navas de Tolosa (cited with praise in the chronicles for the part that he undertook in the victory), who was Canon of Toledo and armor-bearer of the Archbishop, when the Christian army was most discouraged and suffering in terrible anguish for the Miramamolin Mohamed-ben-Jussut was assured of their destruction (and of his reconquest of the entire peninsula), charged arrogantly against the enemy lines displaying the insignia of the Archbishop. His heroic deportment and brilliant deed rekindled the fallen spirits of the Christians, who decidedly threw themselves against the Almohades. They defeated the enemy so completely that the haughty Miramamolin had to shamefully flee and abandon his camp, which was entrenched with strong chains which are today the trophy of the arms of the Kingdom of Navarre, and which additionally was defended by 10,000 ferocious Africans of fearsome appearance who guarded his person while he presided over the battle from the height of his parapet while he recited orations and prayers from the Koran.

Certainly emblems and insignias do not have as ancient an origin as some have attributed them, who according to their fantasy date from the days of Paradise and before the Flood. But it is common knowledge that their use date from the most remote antiquity, as a lion was the emblem of the Tribe of Judah; a lamb was that of Nemrod; a jackal of Anubis; an owl that of Athena; a wild boar that of the Celts; an elephant was the insignia of the Carthaginians; and the eagle was the emblem of the Roman Legions. Not to extend the list to avoid tediousness, for it would be interminable, but ever since men made war with hordes at their command they have employed insignias to differentiate themselves from the other side, using banners and standards with their arms, mottoes, and distinguishing marks.

AMBROSIO DE MORALES maintains the same opinion as Carvallo, claiming that there were no coat-of-arms in the Kingdoms of León, Asturias, Galicia, and Castille until the days of King Alfonso VII. Nevertheless, the Church of Santa Maria de Naranco, founded by Ramiro I in the 9th Century (a church which he himself visited and described in his Viaje Santo) he must have seen the shields that decorate the spandrels that show the lion, which is the emblem of PELAYO and his successors, the Kings of Asturias and León, which contradicts what his text affirms.

In the Benedictine Monastery of Lorenzana of Mondoñedo, Province of Lugo, sealed behind an elaborately worked iron fence is found the sepulcher of its founder, Don Osorio Gutierrez (the Count Saint). On it is the coat-of-arms of the Osorios, which consists of two wolves with some asps on the fringe.

In the matrimonial document of Don Sancho, Infante of Castille dating from the 10th Century (stating year 1000), there are two seals containing two shields, one with a greyhound and another crossed with bars. These seals were certainly not fabricated at a later date, which is what must be claimed to sustain the capricious assertion.

Other similarly emblazoned shields are found on documents of the same period, and they were used at will by the nobles, who chose their emblems as they wished, not conforming to any rule. This is the assertion of the Carraffa brothers in their great ENCICLOPEDIA HERÁLDICA, where they state that coat-of-arms were from the date of their origin until the 10th Century only hieroglyphics and personal, arbitrary emblems but not necessarily signs of honor and nobility meant to be transmitted to posterity from parents to children. Caravallo's assertion can only be sustained by this explanation, not by the significance that he pretends to give it. And this same Caravallo admits what is contrary to his assertion when he assures that PELAYO took as his insignia "the Cross that he always brought to battle."

Shield of arms were adopted by noblemen by their own accord to punctuate and leave a reminder to his descendants of the glorious deeds of arms that they had undertaken, without kings interfering in any manner of their adoption. Kings only showed their initiative in this matter in individual cases of special importance when they wished to note their approval of someone they liked, but without altering the fact that the noblemen themselves had the free will to design the emblems on their shields. The haughty and powerful Medieval feudal Lords and Knights were not about to suffer the humiliation of receiving these honors from the hands of a king! They held greater and more efficient power in their lands than the king had over the nation, and never lost an opportunity to humiliate the Royal Power, in spite of their superficial respect for the office; they earned their emblems with their valor, their blood, and the strength of their arm, and defended them heroically! The great majority of the coat-of-arms of the ancient noble families were freely adopted by them, and due to a natural pride they always dispensed with task of having their coat-of-arms authorized with diplomas from the King of Arms. In the coat-of-arms of Covían, a noble family of Villaviciosa, the decorum of their arms is defended and a threat is issued against any who may affront it. The motto of the family of Mon de San Martín de Oscos, contains the same idea: "ESTAS ARMAS Y BLASON, SON DE LA CASA DE MON COMO FUERTE LAS GANE Y ASI LAS DEFENDERE.

In the jousts and tourneys where knights exercised their dexterity and showed their valor and strength in their execution of the bellical arts, which began in Europe, particularly in Germany, France, and Spain during the 9th, 10th, and 11th Centuries, where the knights presented themselves covered in iron and had no other sign by which they would be known save the emblems engraved or painted on their shields, and especially during the Crusades, where the knights returned covered with laurels and displayed the enterprises that they had accomplished stamped on their banners, which they used to remind their successors, having them inscribed in their halls and in their sepulchral monuments: These were the cause of the transformation which took place in the 13th Century, for in 1285 the first Ordinance of Heraldry, which regulated their use was created. The process was perfected in the following centuries until, in the 15th Century the institution of the King of Arms and Heraldry was established, and heraldry began acquiring the character of a science. Precise rules where then established and a method of expression was defined such that even the most complicated coat-of-arms could be described using only text. Today, when practical interest in heraldry has been diminishing, Heraldry has assumed a distinguished post as an auxiliary science of History, and knowledge of it is indispensable to the historian, archeologist, and biographer.

Besides the individuals mentioned in the previous pages, the family of FERRANDO also included:

FROILA FERRANDEZ who is mentioned in the documents of the VIII Council of Toledo, where he is described as a Count and an exalted personage.

Another FROILA FERRANDEZ, who married FLAVIA GLASUINDA TAVIRA, niece or daughter of Chindasvinto, King of the Goths and widow of Count Ardebastro, who was the son of Atanagildo and Flavia Juliana and grandson of Saint Hermenegildo and Ingunda. The son of FROILA FERRANDEZ and FLAVIA GLASUINDA TAVIRA was TRASAMUNDO FERRANDEZ, father of GAUDIOSA, wife of PELAYO.

SONNA FERRANDEZ, Mayor of Lugo, where he is buried in an unknown grave, went to war under the command of PELAYO and fought in the Battle of Covadonga. He married a daughter of Don Pedro, Duke of Cantabria who was a sister of Don Alfonso who was later crowned King and titled "Catholic". Among his sons, the youngest was FERRANDO PEREZ, who was the father of PEDRO, SANCHO, FERRANDO, SUEYRO, and ALFONSO. These five came together in Peito Burdelo (which in Spanish means "Grave Contribution"), a place between Betanzos and La Coruña with another 35 knights. They undertook the glorious feat of wresting from the Moors 40 damsels who were being taken as part of the ominous tribute called "100 Damsels" which Mauregato
77 had tolerated, and where among them were his sisters SANCHA and MOMERANA. The latter was a damsel of notable beauty, and for that reason was destined for Califa Hixen, son of Abderramán, founder of the Caliphate. As a reminder of this feat (which took place in 791), they called themselves "de Figueroa" as the feat took place in a grove of fig trees. They founded an ancestral house in that location and took as arms five green fig tree leaves on a gold field which is now the coat-of-arms of the Figueroas. "E ista Batalha foé n'o ano de Cristo DCCXCI dous legoas d'a Crunna é unha de Betanzos. E po iste feito e valentia poseron as cinco follas de figueira po divisa e despois d'este feito e cabaleria se chamaron d'o apellido Figueiroa po estae n'aquel campo moitas figueiras verdes, e dexaron as divisas de FERRANDEZ d'o soar de Arcos que é moito antiguo po un discipulo d'o Apostol Santiago chamado FERRANDO." "A o tempo era vivo FERRANDO PEREZ que era sua Casa d'os Suevos e toudo ó d'as Mariñas.78"

SUNIFREDO FERRANDEZ, brother of SONNA who both fought in the Battle of Covadonga.

FERRANDO FERRANDEZ, who dies with Don Rodrigo in the Battle of Guadalete. He was married to YLDUARA ARIAS, who was a descendant of the Suevan King ARIAMIRO, Lady of Castro de Arias and had two sons, ARIAS FERRANDEZ and SORRED FERRANDEZ, both Captains of DON PELAYO and his auxiliaries in the glorious reconquest.

ARIAS FERRANDEZ married MARIA LUCIDO, Lady of the Rivadeneira de Castro Lupario family and were the parents of LUCIDO ARIAS. LUCIDO ARIAS married URANA FERRANDEZ of the family of the FERRANDO and who were the progenitors of the House of SAAVEDRA in the Coto de Saavedra in the land of Lugo, and were Lords and founders of the Eriz Castle. LUCIDO ARIAS and URANA FERRANDEZ were the parents of ARIAS LUCIDO, who along with COUNT DON OVECO rebelled against Mauregato to avenge the ominous tribute of the "100 Damsels" and killed him in 788. ARIAS LUCIDO was married to DONNA BRUNILDA ADELGASTER and COUNT DON OVECO with DONNA ADEFONSA ADELGASTER, both women being daughters of the INFANTE ALDEGASTER, son of KING DON SILO and of DONNA BRUNILDA OF CANTABRIA, who founded the Monastery of Obona and of which more will be said when we discuss the HOUSE OF CABALLERO.

SORRED FERRANDEZ married the INFANTA DOÑA TERESA, because having the misfortune of having killed the INFANTE DON LEYICA (the INFANTA DOÑA TERESA and the INFANTE DON LEYICA being siblings of PELAYO) and feeling despair of committing this act, King Witiza sponsored this wedding. "Ferrando e Ildara ouberon outro filho que se chamou Sorred Ferrandez que deu morte a o Infante Leyica filho d'o Duque Don Fabila, e p'o ista morte pus asfaixaise de doulor, e o Rey Witiza o perdonou e casou c'o Tereixa hirmaa d'o Infante morto, e foe capitan d'a gente de Lugo n'a batalha do REY PELAYO e se chamou Sorred é fez un filho que se chamou Sancho Sorred que fez boudas co Munia Nunez e ten á Dia Sanchez Sorred.

While Fernando I and Doña Sancha reigned (1037 to 1065), DOÑA URRACA DE RON married GARCIA MENDEZ SORRED, a descendant of DIA SANCHEZ SORRED, one of the principal Rico-hombres of this kingdom, and were the founders and main branch of the great family of Sotomayor and that of Fornelos, Counts of Camiña. These titles and Señorios later passed on to the House of MOSCOSO, COUNTS OF ALTAMIRA and to the house of the Count of Andrade. Many other of the most illustrious families of Galicia have as their origin DOÑA URRACA DE RON and GARCI MENDEZ SORRED. (All according to PELLICER in the MEMORIAL DEL MARQUÉZ DE RIVAS and of that of the COUNT OF MIRANDA (Paragraph 22, number 21), and DON FELIPE BERNALDO DE QUIRÓS in the MEMORIAL GENEALÓGICO DE LA CASA DE OLLONIEGO (Folio 36), and from other authors and genealogists.)

During the reign of Alfonso VI (1075 to 1109), DOÑA TODA ALVAREZ DE RON married PEDRO SUAREZ GALLEGO, Rico-hombre of Galicia, of an illustrious family who derived their origins from King Fruela I and Ermesenda Romaiz, who together begat Don Ramón, Count of Monterroso. Don Ramón's grandson, Rodríguez Romaiz married Emilia, Princess of England and invaded and conquered Santa Maria de Hortigueira. PEDRO SUAREZ GALLEGO was the son of Juan Gallego, who had so many victories against the Moors and conquered among them to such a degree that he was known by the nickname Faxihare (Strong Hill), from where his descendants began to use the surname Fajardo. The Fajardos became the Adelantados of Murcia, Marquises de los Velez and Marquises de Molina. This is recorded by Salazar de Mendoza in his Dignidades de Castilla y de León (Book 2, Chapter 2, Folio 29); Pellicer in his Memorial del Conde de Miranda (Paragraph 22, number 21); in the Memorial del Conde de Nava by Don Sancho de Dóriga (Folio 22); Nuñez de Castro in the Memorial de Don Alvaro Queipo del Llano; and by Don Felipe Bernaldo de Quiróz in the cited Memorial de la Casa de Olloniego.

During the reign of Alfonso VII (1109 to 1157), DOÑA JUANA DE RON married SUERO PEREZ GALLEGO, the son of PEDRO SUAREZ GALLEGO (mentioned above). This is mentioned by Francisco de Cascales in his Historia del Reino de Murcia, Titulo y Linaje de Fajardo, where he writes about Doña Juana with great praise and exalts the high position of her family.

While Don Fernando II reigned (1157 to 1188), ALVAR DIAZ DE RON was the military and political Governor of Asturias, a post held immediately before him by Doña Urraca, the widow Queen of Navarra. This post was usually held by members of the family of the King, as Asturias was considered to be the province of the highest significance, thus requiring its governor to be a person of the highest category. This is recorded by Carvallo in his Historia de las Antiguedades y Cosas Memorables de Asturias.

During the reign of Fernando III (1217 to 1253), MARTIN PEREZ DE RON fought in the Andalucian Wars and was one of the 400 knights who received hereditary lands in the Kingdom of Jaén. His coat-of-arms were engraved in the arch of the Church of Baeza, and there are records indicating that he took Bedmar, where his descendants adopted the town's name as a surname, but conserved the ancient Ron coat-of-arms, consisting of a horn on a blue field. This is recorded by Martin de Gimeno in The Ecclesiastical Annals of Jaén (Folio 121) and was quoted by Nuñez de Castro in the Memorial de Queipo del Llano and by Pellicer in that of Don Fernando de los Rios.

During the reign of the same Fernando III and that of his son Alfonso X (until 1284), ALVARO DIAZ, fifth son of RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS and of DOÑA SANCHA DE ESTRADA, remained in the Ron Castle, as stated in a document found at the end of the donation made by DOÑA SANCHA to the Monastery of Carrizo, which says: "Los hermanos que obo Arias Perez e los heredamientos que les cupieron de su padre RODRIGO ALVAREZ e de SANCHA DE ESTRADA su muller. A Pero Alvarez le cupo lo de Noreña; a Ordoño Alvarez la tencia de Gijón; Arias Perez obo a las Omañas; Juan Diaz a Nava; ALVAR DIAZ el castillo de Ron e por ende; a Alfonso lo de Carvallo e Cibea e toda la tierra de Cangas; a Avina finco lo de Navia e a Doñ Inés finco Alzada, e lo de Orbigo, partieron Quiñones por igual, manguer que so tio Alvar Pérez de los tulló."

ALVAR DIAZ DE ASTURIAS, Lord of the RON Castle also became Lord of the Aguilar Castle, as DON PEDRO RODRIGUEZ DE AGUILAR gave it to his daughter DOÑA ALDONZA DE AGUILAR, who became ALVAR DIAZ DE ASTURIAS' wife. DON PEDRO RODRIGUEZ DE AGUILAR was the father of DON RODRIGO SANCHEZ DE AGUILAR as it is stated in a document recording a donation to the Monastery of de la Vega de Oviedo in 1263, where DON RODRIGO SANCHEZ DE AGUILAR grants that monastery his marketable inheritances and much land. Apparently, this DON RODRIGO SANCHEZ DE AGUILAR later went to live in Villaviciosa, where he was very powerful, and his sister, DOÑA ALDONZA DE AGUILAR, married to ALVAR DIAZ, were the owners of his lands in the west of Asturias, which consisted of a castle and ancestral lands in San Antolin de Ibias, as stated by Carvallo in the cited work and recorded in the Becerro de Oviedo.

ALVAR DIAZ was, as was mentioned above, the son of RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS (the third of that name), who served Saint King Fernando in the conquest of Seville with his brothers ALVAR PEREZ DE QUIÑONES (who was the progenitor of the QUIÑONES family) and RUI PEREZ DE AVILES (master of Calatrava) who behaved brilliantly in the taking of Seville. All three of them where sons of another RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS (the second of that name) who married the Infanta DOÑA SANCHA ALFONSO, daughter of King ALFONSO VI OF CASTILLE AND LEÓN and of Princess DOÑA ISABEL, the daughter of LUIS VI, King of France. This second RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS was Governor of Asturias, and in a document written in favor of the Church of Burgos, King Alfonso VII and his wife Doña Berenguela refer to him as Count of Asturias and as King of Gozón and of Pravia because King Alfonso VI had granted these places to his daughter DOÑA SANCHA, wife of DON RODRIGO free of subjugation to the Royal Jurisdiction.

The second RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS was the son of ALVARO RODRIGUEZ DE ASTURIAS and of his wife MARIA PELAEZ, and the grandson of the first RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS and of his wife XIMENA GOMEZ, who was the daughter of DON GOMEZ DIAZ DE GORMAZ (whom the ancient romances call Count Lozano) and of his wife DOÑA TERESA PELAEZ (both Count and Countess of Carrión). DOÑA TERESA PELAEZ was the daughter of Countess DOÑA ALDONZA ORDOÑEZ and the INFANTE DON PELAYO FLOREZ, himself a grandson of KING FRUELA II.

The first RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS was the son of DIEGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS, Lord (Señor) of Nava and Count of Oviedo and of his wife, the INFANTA DOÑA XIMENA ALFONSO, daughter of KING ALFONSO V. He was the grandson of RODRIGO ALFONSO DE CANGAS, who was married to COUNTESS DOÑA GONIA, Lady (Señora) of Nava. RODRIGO ALFONSO DE CANGAS was so powerful in Asturias that he claimed the name of the Kingdom as his surname and as that of his descendants.

RODRIGO ALFONSO DE CANGAS and de Nava was a highly esteemed knight in his time, considered very valorous and spirited, as he proved in the resistance that he offered the Castillians who eager to start a war, entered Asturias to prevent the Asturians from sending assistance to King Don Ramiro III. King Don Ramiro III was then in León attempting to subjugate the Castillians, who had rebelled against him, proclaiming the independence of Castille from the Kingdom of León and acclaiming Count Don García Fernandez (the successor of Count Fernan González) their king. In order to attract the alliance of RODRIGO ALFONSO to their cause, the Castillians proposed to him a marriage between his daughter, TERESA NUÑEZ with DIEGO LAINEZ, the successor of DIEGO PORCELLO (the founder of Burgos), who was a descendant of an ancient Asturian family with an ancestral house in Porceyo, situated one league from Gijón. The Castillians gained nothing from this, for although DON RODRIGO acceded to the marriage of his daughter for his convenience, he continued serving the cause of the King with the same enthusiasm and loyalty as before.

From the marriage of TERESA NUÑEZ with DIEGO LAINEZ was born EL CID, RODRIGO DIAZ DE VIVAR, called THE CASTILLIAN, just as his cousin, RODRIGO DIAZ DE ASTURIAS was called THE ASTURIAN. History, legend, and fame are full of the feats of these two grandsons of DON RODRIGO ALFONSO due to the great and valorous feats which they performed. (RODRIGO DIAZ DE ASTURIAS, EL ASTURIANO was married to XIMENA GOMEZ, the daughter of the Counts of Carrión, and was the son of DIEGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS, Count of Oviedo and Lord of Nava and of his wife, the INFANTA DOÑA XIMENA ALFONSO, who was the daughter of KING ALFONSO V.)

El CID did not have descendants who carry his name even though his marriage to DOÑA XIMENA DIAZ, daughter of DIEGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS yielded a son, for he died fighting the Moors at Consuegra. His two daughters, repudiated by their husbands the Infantes de Carrión (who were also their cousins) as well known by legend, married after that event: Doña Elvira Cristina with Don Ramón, who were the parents of the King of Navarre, Don Garcia Ramirez; Doña Maria Sol with Don Pedro, Count of Barcelona, son of Don Pedro of Aragon. In this manner, EL CID's descendants recasted themselves into the Kings of Castille.

This famous and memorable family of the Alvarez de Asturias, who originated so many noble Asturian ancestral houses had their origin in the INFANTE DON ORDOÑO (The Blind), who was the son of KING DON RAMIRO II and of QUEEN DOÑA MUNIA. The INFANTA DOÑA CRISTINA was his wife. She was the daughter of KING DON BERMUDO and QUEEN DOÑA BALESQUITA. The families of Alvarez de Asturias, Nava and Noreña descend from this branch by way of their son COUNT DON ALFONSO ORDOÑEZ and his wife DOÑA JUSTA, Lady of the Royal House of León. Their arms consists of 15 checkerboard squares, 7 of the blue bordered in silver and 8 red.

From this same branch descend the following:

By way of their daughter DOÑA XIMENA ORDOÑEZ from her first marriage (with Count DON NUÑO RODRIGUEZ) was born DOÑA XIMENA NUÑEZ, famous friend of KING ALFONSO VI (more will be said of her below), and from her marriage to MUNION RODRIGUEZ CAN (Alorio) she is the progenitor of the Munión de Cangas. Among her descendants in the Munión de Cangas family is Doña Aldona Munión, who married Count Don Piñolo, who was a descendant of Count Don Vela and Countess Donna Totilde, founder of the ancient Monastery of Bárcena, and who finding themselves without children founded the Monastery of Corias with their with enormous estates and properties.

By way of their other daughter, DOÑA ALDONZA ORDOÑEZ, who married the INFANTE DON PELAYO FLOREZ, grandson of KING DON FRUELA II (both who founded the Monastery of Belmonte) was born COUNT DON PEDRO PELAEZ. COUNT DON PEDRO PELAEZ married COUNTESS DOÑA ANDERQUINA and were the progenitors of the Houses of ARGANZA and CABO DEL RIO in Tineo and of COUNTESS DOÑA TERESA PELAEZ. DOÑA TERESA PELAEZ married COUNT DON GOMEZ DE GORMAZ and were the founders of San Zoli, Counts of Carrión and parents of: DOÑA XIMENA GOMEZ, of the INFANTES DE CARRIÓN (who married the daughters of EL CID), and DOÑA MARIA FROILAZ. DOÑA XIMENA GOMEZ married RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS (the first). DOÑA MARIA FROILAZ married PERO ALFONSO DE CANGAS, COUNT OF BANIA AND TINEO, who commanded the Asturians in the Battle of Almería, and was Mayordomo of the EMPEROR ALFONSO VII and his private counselor. PERO ALFONSO DE CANGAS was the brother of Nuño Alfonso de Cangas, Lord of the Castle of Mora and Mayor of Toledo, and who also defeated the Moorish Kings Acuel of Córdoba and Avenceta of Seville in 1142, and who entered triumphant into Toledo. Another brother of PERO ALFONSO DE CANGAS was ALFONSO GONZALO DE CANGAS, Lord of Salcedo (Belmonte), from whom descend the famous families of Alfonso and Llano de Cangas.

During the reign of Alfonso X (1252 to 1254), DON GOMEZ DE RON confirmed a privilege granted to Villaviciosa of Asturias.

During the reign of Sancho IV (1284 to 1295), FRAY FERNANDO DE RON was Comendador of Fresneda of the Order of Calatrava, as written by Felipe de la Gandara in ARMAS Y TRIUNFOS.

During the reign of Alfonso XI (1312 to 1350), JUAN FERNANDEZ DE RON, Merino Mayor of Asturias, Lord of Ron in the Council of Castropol, head and patermayor of this lineage confirms a donation to the Monastery of San Vicente de Oviedo made by COUNT DON RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS, as affirmed by Carvallo in LA HISTORIA DE ASTURIAS and by Pellicer in EL MEMORIAL DEL CONDE DE MIRANDA.

DON JUAN FERNANDEZ DE RON had two daughters. One, called DOÑA CONSTANZA DE RON married in 1339 with FERNANDO ALVAREZ DE VILLAMIL, Lord of the Villamil ancestral house. He was the great-great-great-great-great grandson of Bartolomé Yañez Villamil, who for his many great services to King Alfonso VII received the notable privilege recorded in history of having his ancestral house called Casa de Refugio
81, and declared him and his family free of all types of tribute, warning that grave penalties would befall anyone who contravenes this conceded exception.

The other daughter of DON JUAN FERNANDEZ DE RON was called DOÑA ALDONZA DE RON and married PEDRO MENENDEZ Y VALDES DE SALAS. They were the great-great grandparents of DON FERNANDO DE VALDEZ, Archbishop of Sevilla and were the progenitor of the Marquises of Mirallo, as cited by Silva, in his ESTUDIO DE LA FAMILIA VALDÉS and by Don Sancho de Dóriga in EL MEMORIAL DE LA CASA DE NAVA.

BLASCO BLAZQUEZ DE RON is mentioned by Don Diego Mesia de Ovando in the second book of LA OVANDINA as "An Asturian Knight of the Habit of Santiago, head during those times of the RONES, a very prominent and ancient family, son of BLASCO FERNANDEZ DE RON and of DOÑA ELVIRA DE VALDES, daughter of JUAN DE VALDES and DOÑA LUCIA DE ESTRADA, from whose lineage have sprung many Ricos-hombres, Bishops, and Comendadores of the four Military Orders as is recorded in the chronicles and in the documents of donations and privileges granted by the Kings and private individuals to various churches and monasteries of San Benito, where many knights of the RON surname were confirmed. Their arms consists of a golden horn on a blue field and surrounding it a motto which reads: `A ESTE SON COMEN LOS DE RON.' His ancestral house is in the Asturias of Santillana, and they created more modern ones later in the Kingdom of Galicia."

So says Ovando in the OVANDINA, although he makes a mistake in affirming that the RON lineage has an ancestral house in Asturias of Santillana, for it is in the Asturias of Oviedo, in the place called "CUATRO SACADAS," where the RON place is found, included in the Council of Castropol, of which Pesoz was part. This remained until the territory became so disjointed between the many enclosed grounds and Councils that the Council of Pesoz was created. It is in Pesoz, the capital of the Council of that same name that the RON PALACE and their fortress is located, which is one of the strongest and most ancient castles that have been conserved. It should be noted that when the Catholic Monarchs ordered Don Fernando de Acuña to demolish all the castles and fortresses of Asturias and Galicia, he did not touch this one in Pesoz due to its antiquity and to the memory that during its many years its lords had kept an indubitable fidelity to the crown.

FRAY ALFONSO PEREZ DE RON, Knight of Alcántar and Comendador of Castilnovo (and before that of Mascoras) appears about this time, according to Rades de Andrade in his CRÓNICA DE LAS ORDENES MILITARES (Chapter 18, page 25).

During the reign of Don Pedro I (1350 to 1369), ALVAR DIAZ DE RON, third of this name and owner of the House of RON intervened in the quarrel between [King] Don Pedro and his brother Don Enrique which caused so much turmoil in Asturias. The death of the King in the fields of Montiel created new disagreements among the Asturians about the recognition of Don Enrique as his successor
82. An agreement was reached to deposit the keys of the city of Oviedo in the hands of GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS, who after accepting the charge filed a famous lawsuit against DON ALVARO DIAZ DE RON and Don Gonzalo de Fontecha, Dean of Oviedo and later Bishop of Burgos, as recorded in the histories of Asturias.

While Don Enrique II reigned (1369 to 1379), IÑIGO LOPEZ DE RON was Comendador of Calatrava and Gentil Hombre de Boca of the King, as well as Pagador
83 of his Councils. During the same period lived DON ALFONSO DE RON, Knight of the Order of Alcántara and Comendador of Ceclavín.

During the reign of Don Juan I (1379 to 1388) mention is made of SANCHO MENDEZ DE RON, founder of the main chapel of the Church of Santiago of Pesoz, of which the Lords of the House of Ron are patrons and of DOÑA ELVIRA RODRIGUEZ DE RON, who married DON DIEGO QUEIPO DEL LLANO, son of ALVARO ALFONSO DE CANGAS, Lord of the Castle de la Muñona (or Muriella) and of his wife ALDARA RODRIGUEZ DE LLANO of that illustrious house of Cangas de Tineo. DOÑA ELVIRA RODRIGUEZ DE RON and DON DIEGO QUEIPO DEL LLANO are the grandparents of SUERO QUEIPO DEL LLANO, who in 1526 founded the vínculo of the House of Queipo del Llano, the successors of which today are Counts of Toreno and have been Grandees of Spain since 1836.

Also during this period, DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE RON married DOÑA GONTRODA OSORIO, Lady of the House of Osorio de Villalobos, Count of Trastámara and later Marquis of Astorga, from which originate the bloody wolf skins in a field of gold found in the coat-of-arms of RON, which is the emblem of the house of Osorio.

During the reign of Don Juan II (1406 to 1459), MARCOS FERNANDEZ DE RON and LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON, sons of DON DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE RON and of DOÑA GONTRODA OSORIO occupy a preeminent position: first for having made a considerable donation to the Royal Convent of Villanueva de Oscos of the Cistercian Order, for which they are recorded as benefactors of this convent in their books (and their archives contain the document recording this donation), and second because DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON, Lord of the House of Ron raised all the forces of his land (numbering 1,500 men) to relieve his kin FERNAN DIAZ DE RIVADENEIRA, Lord of Sobrado de Aguilar of the House of Tores when he asked for assistance during the siege imposed by the Count of Lemos.

At that time, Marshall Pedro Pardo joined the said LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON with all his house plus 50 lances and 1,000 peons taken from the Bishopric of Mondoñedo (which his father, Juan Nuñez Pardo) had an Encomienda since 1381, as told by Vasco de Aponte in his LINAJES, referring to the great power that he was exercising in Galicia. "Pedro Pardo because his daughter Beatriz married Pedro Bolaño, attracted the entire House of Rivadeneira, which together with the House of RON bettered himself and competed with Diego de Andrade."

PEDRO DE MIRANDA, the old man, son of Alonso Diez de Miranda (called The Cruel), "a man of great deeds" according to the same Vasco de Aponte, Lord of the House of Parga and Guiteriz, a house of the greatest importance of Galicia commanded 30 horse and 800 vassals. Rui González, Pedro Pardo de Cabarcos, Gonzalo de Becerra de Navia with his relatives and many other principal lords [also joined in].

The Count of Lemos, as described by Vasco de Aponte "did not know what to do" when he saw the great force that came against him. His house would have been destroyed has not Don Diego de Andrade with 120 horsemen and many peons reached Lugo and calling the principal chiefs managed to establish peace between them.

LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON also served the Catholic Monarchs with his company in the revolutions which took place in Galicia in the War of the Hermandiños, and with the war cry "DEUS FRATRESQAE GALLECIAE" upset the political and social order of the region.

Finally, he intervened in the disturbances caused by the issue of the succession to the throne of Castille between the Infanta Doña Isabel (who later became Queen of Castille) and Doña Juana la Beltraneja, disregarding the fact that Marshall Pedro Pardo de Aguilar, Pedro Bolaño de Becerra y Llamas, and Pedro de Miranda Bahamonde (son of PEDRO DE MIRANDA RIVADENEIRA, the old man, and granson-in-law of the Marshall) were Doña Juana's relatives, and the third one (Pedro de Miranda Bahamonde) was in fact his brother-in-law, because DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON had married DOÑA MAYOR DE MIRANDA BAHAMONDE, Pedro de Miranda Bahamonde's sister, who was Lady of the House of Miranda and of the enclosed lands of Villameá and Rececende (in the Kingdom of Galicia), their marriage being mentioned by Padre Gerónimo Pardo in Book 40 of his HISTORIA DE LAS EXCELENCIAS DEL PATRON DE SANTIAGO.

(The arms of the House of Miranda consist of 5 damsel heads, one medal, three crosses, and one star in a field of gold, bordered with two serpents with their heads and tails intertwined in a blue field, which reminds us of the valorous deed performed by ALVAR FERNANDEZ DE MIRANDA, who wrested five damsels from the power of the Moors who were been taken as part of the ominous tribute [of the "100 Damsels'] consented by Mauregato.

The daughter of DON DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE RON and his wife DOÑA GONTRODA OSORIO was DOÑA ALDONZA DE RON, whom Don Sancho de Doriga in his MEMORIAL GENEALOGICO DE LA CASA DE NAVA calls: "daughter of the most noble and ancient House of RON, illustriously celebrated in the Principate of Asturias." She married Gutierre de Nava y Alvarez de Asturias, who served Don Fernando de Antequera, who was elected King of Aragon in the Caspe Compromise, and served his son Alfonso V as Admiral of his fleet in the wars of Tunis and in the attack which definitely conquered the Kingdom of Naples. Although he was defeated in the Battle of Ponza in 1435 in which many men and knights were taken prisoner by the Genoese, including even King Alfonso V, it was not to his detriment as he advised against offering battle. At any rate, according to Zurita in the Annals of Aragon, the Genoese demanded as their ransom the enormous sum (at the time) of 12,000 gold florins, and thus compensated the great damage to Genoa and her commerce inflicted by the Aragonese squadron.

From this matrimony came a son, ALVARO DE NAVA ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS Y RON, successor of his father in the post of Admiral, and as such took possession in 1479 in the name of the King of Aragon the island and castle of Gelves.

The second son of LOPEZ NUÑEZ DE RON and DOÑA MAYOR DE MIRANDA BAHAMONDE was DON SANCHO LOPEZ DE RON, who fought in War of Granda as Corporal of the Armed People that the Marquis of Astorga raised in Galicia, which he took to reinforce the siege of Baza by King Don Fernando. This gentleman, who had his ancestral house in Lorenzana, adjacent to Mondoñedo was married three times. The first marriage was to DOÑA MARIA ARES DE IBIAS, daughter of DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS and of DON DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y MIRANDA, Lords of Ibias, Laciana, and Cubillos and progenitors of the House of Ibias de Cuantas, one of the branches in which the HOUSE OF IBIAS was divided, which over time became united in the HOUSE OF RON AND IBIAS in 1735 by the marriage of DOÑA MARIA DE IBIAS Y PATAQUIN, Lady of this house and sole successor, with the HOUSE OF RON, as will be detailed later.

His second marriage was with Doña Maria de Lanzós, whose arms consist of five lances leaning against an oak tree in a red field. His second grandson [from this marriage] was Don Sancho Pardo Osorio, who was Knight of the Order of Santiago, and General of the Carrera de Indias. The sons of Don Sancho Pardo Osorio were Don Sancho Pardo and Don Juan Pardo de Dolebún Lanzós y RON were also Knights of Santiago, the first one dying while serving as corporal of the Spanish Armada in the siege of Lisbon and the second died serving in the Armada of Galicia in the port of Guetaria.

His third marriage was with Doña Elvira Osorio, with whom he had succession which quickly melded within the Lanzós and Tineo families and with others of the Kingdom of León.

DON ALVARO DIAZ DE RON, firstborn of LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON and of DOÑA MAYOR DE MIRANDA succeeded them as Lord of the House of RON. He married DOÑA SANCHA DE PARGE, Lady of this house and of the enclosed lands of Folgeras y Moya de Castropol. (Their arms consist of three gold bars in a blue field.) Their son was DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON, who married in 1518 with DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y QUIROS, daughter of DOÑA EMILIA GONZALEZ DE IBIAS and of GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS, of whom more will be said later. By virtue of a Royal Decree granted in their favor in 1519, they founded the mayorazgo of RON E IBIAS in Pesoz on August 29, 1521 before the Scribe Alonso Rodriguez de Rivadeo.

The Ibias House

The House of Ibias has its ancient ancestral castle in the village and coto of Marentes, in the Principate of Asturias. Of this castle today only ruins remain. This House also had another ancestral house in Cuantas, Alfoz of the Village of San Antolín, capital of the Council of Ibias, which (as was the case for the castle) time reduced to nothing. Another house was later built in Cecos, and it formed part of the vínculo of Ron and Ibias.

<Picture: Ruins of the Ancient Castle of Ibias in Marentes.>

The Ibias lineage is one of the most ancient of Asturias, and is heard of in the 8th Century during the invasion of Spain by the Moors. The arms used by this family represent a trophy of an action taken against them: During the first years of the invasion, an avalanche of Moors were marching down the valley from the mountains of León. The Lord of the Marentes Castle invoked the name of God and of the Chieftain and set out to oppose them with armed people. They pursued them up the valley to Tormaleo, where they joined with others that were fleeing Pelayo from Cangas de Tineo. The now joined force of Moors crossed the Asturian Cordillera being pursued by Pelayo, leaving the country free from their grasp. From that time, the battle cry used in that event "IBIAS, IBIAS, DIOS ME AYUDE"
84 became the motto of their coat-of-arms.

Their arms consist of: A castle from which a warrior armed with a spear fights with a fish-tailed monster, with three fishes at the bottom of the waters, and on top a Cross similar to the one that the Knights of Saint John used, all in an azure field, bordered with the aforementioned motto.

The country being free of Saracens, the family remained the defender of the land as owners and Lords, with the civil and criminal jurisdiction called "de horca y cuchillo"
85, which its successors continued exercising. This is evident by various suits won at different times by the owners of this House, as recorded in the Royal Executionary Letters86 were proof of these rights are offered and confirmed.

During the period of three hundred years after the [described event of the] defeat of the Moors neither tradition nor history contribute details of events in the House of Ibias. Only the Nobiliaries carry copious genealogical news.

Diego de Urbina, King of Arms of Felipe II, in his Nobiliary "BLASONES Y LINAJES" mentions as many other do: "The member of the IBIAS are very good Hidalgos natives of the mountains of Asturias of Oviedo where they have their ancestral house of great antiquity located in the coto
87 of Marentes, adjacent to the Ibias River in the Council of the same name called SOLAR Y CASA DE IBIAS88. It is an ancestral house and armory, one of the most noble and well known of Asturias. From this lineage come principal Hidalgos of much esteem and much noted by their military feats, and who have served the Kings well in the wars against the Moors during the conquest of the kingdom.

Luis Alfonso Carvallo in his "ANTIGUEDADES Y COSAS MEMORABLES DE ASTURIAS (Title 39, paragraph 18), and Don Manuel Trelles Villademoros in his "ASTURIAS ILLUSTRADA" (Volume 1, Chapt. 33, page 355, and Volume 2, Chapt. 47, page 115) along with other authors affirm that "the House of IBIAS was so splendorous and powerful that in 1076 MARTIN RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS and SANCHA VIMARAZ his wife made a donation to the Church of Oviedo of the loan and goods that said church had in the Council." The document detailing the referred donation exists in the archives of the Cathedral of Oviedo in the Gothic Book, written in magisterial handwriting, and bears the following signature: "Sub Era I ca XIIII quodan IIII calendas Junii."

History then records that the Infanta DOÑA TERESA was recognized by her father King ALFONSO VI who had fathered her along with her sister, the Infanta DOÑA ELVIRA with a very principal lady of Asturias who was the Lady of Tineo (and a cousin of his, as they were both great-grand-children of King Don Bermudo II) called DOÑA XIMENA NUÑEZ with whom he was contracting his second nuptials. These would have been verified had not Pope Gregory VII (in his Brief of 27 June of 1080) condemned this union as incestuous, warning of grave penalties for its illegality and exhorting them to immediate separation.

About this matter we find in the chronicle of Bishop Don Pablo ( N.1 MS. Sig.3 1,279) a paragraph that reads: "And there was a lady of his house by name DOÑA XIMENA or DOÑA TERESA, who was married to Count Don Enrique, and the King Don Alfonso gave him as a marriage gift with this his daughter, the County of Portugal, with the condition that he and his descendants were to remain subject to the House of Castille."

And the fact that the said DOÑA XIMENA was the Lady of Tineo is recorded in a donation granted by Doña Guina to the Church of Oviedo (the document exists and is found in the archives of the Cathedral), which says: "facta donationem nostram tenete Tinegium, Donna Enrique, cum soora sua Donna Scemena."

Fray Prudencio de Sandoval in the CRONICA DEL EMPERADOR ALFONSO VII and in the CRONICA DE LOS CINCO REYES incorporates the entire, previously cited Brief of Pope Gregory VII.

This lady DOÑA XIMENA has her sepulcher in the Monastery de Vega de Espinareda, and her epitaph was written on a tablet inside the chapel where the monks celebrated the Chapters, where Fray Prudencio de Sandoval copied the following:

<Picture: The cited tablet with inscription. The lifted inscription.>

There are some errors in this quote, as the blurred portions were not read correctly. But the fact that his quotation does not alter the meaning is made plain by the facsimile published by Padre Florez. Although the letters were not exact, they style was correctly reproduced. The tablet is now in a much more deplorable state, as shown by the photograph taken of it, published here for the first time.

And in case anyone has trouble converting this into Castillian, following is a translation adjusted as much as possible to the letter, literary form, and concept, correcting an unpious commentary made with unforgivable lightheartedness by the monk, Bishop, and Chronicler, a commentary quite unsuitable to the text of the epitaph:

Construction that took place at a later date in the monastery caused the tablet to be moved from its original location to the wall of the cloister, and it is found today in the museum of the capital of the province, where it was recently relocated.

Between 1090 and 1095 King DON ALFONSO VI and DOÑA XIMENA married the daughters of their union: DOÑA ELVIRA they married to Count Don Ramón de Tolosa
91, cousin of Don Ramón de Borgoña92, who married the legitimate daughter of the king and who was heir to the Crown of Castille. Don Ramón de Tolosa accompanied the armies of his father-in-law the King until the war in Castille ended, and as soon as he felt that his obligations were fulfilled, he returned to France with his wife. From France, he joined the Crusaders and marched to the conquest of the Holy Land with his relative Godofredo de Buillón. Establishing his ancestral house in a castle that he ordered built in Pilgrim Mountain, a boy was born to them whom they baptized Alfonso as his grandfather. Because the boy was baptized in the waters of the Jordan River, he took the river's name as his surname, and as Alfonso Jordán he later became a distinguished figure in the history of Spain.

DOÑA TERESA was married to Don Enrique de Lorena, receiving as dowry by way of her mother the Señorio of Tineo, and by way of her father the Government of Portugal, which was transferred to them with the title of Count, so that they would endeavor to wrest it from the power of the Moors, who had the region subjugated. Count Don Enrique confirmed his military prowess in short order. At the time of his death while facing the walls of Astorga in 1112, he left behind a
region completely liberated to his son, Alfonso Enriquez, who assumed the title of Duke, which soon turned into that of King, as granted by the Cortes of Lamego.

The Infanta DOÑA TERESA, seeing herself a widow, claimed the Señorio of Portugal from her son, which she felt was rightfully hers to govern and enjoy its rents. Her son did not consent to that, alleging that the Señorio of Portugal had been granted by King DON ALFONSO to his father Don Enrique, and that he, and not her, had retrieved it from the power of the Moors. Feeling wronged, DOÑA TERESA requested the help of her sister, Queen DOÑA URRACA and of her son King Alfonso VII. They welcomed her favorably and sympathized with her anguish, but were unable to lend her efficient assistance, as they were gravely compromised with a war against Don Alfonso of Aragon, who intended to govern Castille as the husband of the queen. Count DON PEDRO PEREZ DE TRAVA, an illustrious Galician nobleman went to her aid. This was the man who when King Alfonso VI lay dying in Toledo in 1108 left as guardian and tutor of his grandson Alfonso VII. DON PEDRO and his wife DOÑA GONTRODA RODRIGUEZ took Alfonso VII to their ancestral house in Caldas de Reyes, raising him as their own son and guarding him against possible violence from his step-father Don Alfonso of Aragón.

DON PEDRO PEREZ DE TRAVA's power was such that (as expressed by Bishop Fray Prudencio de Sandoval in his chronicle),his protection allowed his pupil Alfonso VII to become King of Castille and León, against the impediments of his step-father Don Alfonso of Aragón, and even the opposition of his mother Queen Doña Urraca.

DON PEDRO PEREZ DE TRAVA was one of the most powerful lords of the kingdom, of whom Don Pedro of Portugal, Count of Barcelos and son of King Don Dionis in his chronicle and nobiliary says: "He was the greatest man in Spain after King Don Alfonso." Without doubt, with his support, the Infanta DOÑA TERESA would have come out victorious in what according to the thinking of the period were just claims. But her intemperate actions decreased the merits of his assistance. Choosing the affection of her spirit over the demands of her position, she married for the second time with Don Bermudo Perez, the son of her protector, who as soon as the wedding ceremony was over began titling himself Count of Portugal.

"A few days later, a brother of his called FERNAN PEREZ DE TRAVA went to where the Countess was and married her, taking her away from his brother and giving him as wife Doña Teresa Enriquez, daughter of Count Don Enrique and of the same Countess, having therefore as wives both the mother and the daughter." This notorious impudence shattered moral and legal principles, even though DON FERNANDO made amends by performing the penitence of visiting the Holy Land (a very common practice during those times). His return from Jerusalem is recorded in a donation which he made to the Monastery of Sobrado dated 1153, stating: "Anno quo ego Comes Ferrandus, secundo Hierosoliman, perrexi."

At the time that DON FERNANDO perpetrated such a reproachful act, he was still married to Doña Sancha González, daughter of the eminent Asturian and Rico-Hombre Gonzalo Peláez, Governor of Astorga, of El Bierzo, and of Babia, Lord of the Castles of Alba de Quirós, Proaza, and Buango, who rebelling against King Alfonso VII sustained a war for more than two years against his power, costing Nuño Alfonso de Cangas great effort to reduce him to obedience.

Regardless of the unbridled conduct of Count DON FERNANDO and of the scandal caused by the abandonment of his own first wife, he continued to exert a powerful influence over the destinies of the nation, and shown by confirmations of Royal Letters and public document of the era.

In a donation made by Countess Doña Loba to the Monastery of Joiba in Carranza dated 1130 is confirmed by COUNT DON FERNANDO PEREZ, son of COUNT DON PEDRO, along with his daughter DOÑA URRACA.

In the year 1135, in the document describing the foundation of the Monastery...

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...lands held by Alfonso VII, who confirms many documents of donations and privileges, continuing in his service until said king died, unquestionably in the place of Fresneda, in the port of Murandal in the year 1159.

Don Juan, Archbishop of Toledo, who assisted the King in his last moments, says that the division of the kingdom decided by him was advised by Counts DON FERNANDO FERNANDEZ DE TRASTÁMARA and Don Manrique de Lara, who held great influence over him.

At that time, Count DON FERNANDO FERNANDEZ DE TRASTÁMARA was quite old, and after the death of the king he retired to his Señorios of IBIAS and Tineo in Asturias, where he resided until his death in 1163, six years after the death of Alfonso VII

GOMEZ FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS, his son, was Lord of IBIAS, Tineo, and Cangas, and also of many other places. He served King Alfonso IX of León and was one of the Rico-hombres who in 1175 signed as the underwriter of a donation made by García González de Valdés and his wife Doña Maria Pérez in favor of the Monastery of San Vicente of Oviedo, as written by Garcia Alonso de Torres in the second part of his BLASONES. He was married to DOÑA DORDIA GONZALEZ DE VALDÉS, of the house of Valdés de Salas and of San Cucado, and had as son SANCHO GOMES DE IBIAS, who also was Rico-hombre of King Fernando III, the Saint.

SUERO RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS appear about this time confirming the Royal Letter of the [founding of the] village of Vega de Espinareda in the ancient province of Bierzo, given in 1220, which exists in the archives of the Benedictine Monastery of that village, where he signed as SUARIUS RODERICI TENENTE DE IBIAS.

PEDRO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS was Governor of Asturias, according to Carvallo in his cited work, and of him we find a mention in a document recording a donation to the Monastery of San Juan de Corias mentioned by Maestro Yepes in the Appendix of the second part of his chronicle. This document is dated 1211 and states that PEDRO FERNANDEZ, son of GOMEZ FERNANDEZ who owned IBIAS and CANGAS, names his wife ELVIRA MARTINEZ DE MIRANDA and their sons GOMEZ PEREZ, SANCHO PEREZ, and ANDRES PEREZ (who co-signed it) promise that they will not back away from the donation nor request the abbess or her nuns for the return of the hereditary offerings that said PEDRO FERNANDEZ and GELOIRA MARTINEZ DE MIRANDA, their parents, had donated to San Juan de Corias.

GOMEZ PEREZ DE IBIAS, called The Asturian, mentioned by Maestro Yepes in the third part of his chronicle, was one of the benefactors of the Monastery of Valdediós, which was later annexed by the Monastery of San Vicente of Oviedo. This is recorded in a donation document that said GOMEZ PEREZ and his wife DOÑA EVA DIAZ DE CASO made to that monastery dated in Oviedo 6 December 1228, conferring it part of the land that they held in Cangas de Tineo. Mention is made of this gentleman in the CRONICA GENERAL DE ESPAÑA and in EL REINADO DE ALFONSO XI of Padre Carvallo, where he is referred to as being from the House of Miranda, for he was brought up there by his maternal grandparents. He was married to DOÑA EVA DIAZ DE CASO, and they had as children:

HERNAN GOMEZ DE IBIAS, who fought with is father in the famous Battle of Navas de Tolosa (1212) and was one of the knights who took part in the conquest of Seville, as noted in the apportioning that Don Pablo Espinosa refers in the second part of the history of that city. He also obtained the Señorio of IBIAS, as did his progeny, and married DOÑA ELVIRA RUIZ DE AVILES, daughter of RUI PEREZ DE AVILES, who Carvallo also mentions was present in the conquest of Seville and who greatly contributed to its surrender: Launching his ship, built in the shipyards of Sabugo and manned by Asturian mariners of the armada commanded by Admiral Bonifaz, he violently attacked the pontoon bridge and the chain which the Moors used to close the entrance to the city by way of the river, a feat that was bravely sustained with the aid of his brother, RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS (third of this name), who attacked the Moors by land after noting that they were heading to the river to repulse the attack, managing to destroy them.

GONZALO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS, son of HERNAN GOMEZ and ELVIRA RUIZ DE AVILES served King Don Alfonso X (The Wise) and his son King Don Sancho for many years, as affirmed by Diego de Urbina in the third part of his TIMBRES HERÁLDICOS, where we also find that he was married to DOÑA ALDONZA SUAREZ DE CANGAS, daughter of SUERO ALFONSO DE CANGAS, Lord of this house, who Carvallo recalls was made Merino Mayor of Asturias by King Don Alfonso X. He owned the Castle of Segura, which is on the place of Llano and the Castle of Palanquero which is next to Sestorraso, both in the land of Cangas.

In the days of King Don Sancho The Brave and his son Don Fernando, NUÑO GONZALEZ DE IBIAS (GONZALO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS' and ALDONZA SUAREZ DE CANGAS' son) obtained possession of Castropol, and he was one of the people who most strongly opposed the transfer of the Puebla of Castropol to the place of Robledo. This transfer was supported by Suero Menendez de Ribadeo, Lord of the powerful House of Villar, who commanded 300 men that obeyed his commands. He was the son of Menen Suárez de Ribadeo, who had received the command of the Castle of Fiel from the Bishop of Oviedo, Don Fernando Alvarez, causing a lawsuit from Juan Alfonso de Navia, as recorded in the documents of the Holy Church of Oviedo. He was married to DOÑA TERESA ALVAREZ DE SIERO, Lady of the Alvarez de Asturias, ancient Lords of Nava de Gijón and Noreña.

PEDRO GOMEZ DE IBIAS, his son, was married to DOÑA MARTINEZ PONTE, and both (on a document dated 10 March 1314) make a donation to the Monastery of San Pelayo de Oviedo of various properties (haciendas) that his parents (NUÑO GONZALEZ and TERESA ALVAREZ) had in Cangas. "To the benefit of their souls and that of Rodrigo Alonso Ponte (father of the said Leonor Martinez)." This document is confirmed by Alfonso Martinez de Oviedo, Rodrigo Alfonso Ponte, Don Rodrigo Alvarez de Siero, and other gentlemen, all relatives of the ones making the donation. PEDRO GOMEZ DE IBIAS was Lord of Ibias and Governor of Asturias, and one of the ones who distinguished himself in the Portuguese war. He died in the siege of Gibraltar in 1355. He had many sons and daughters from whom originated great families of Andalucia and Extremadura, as it is noted in the GENEALOGIA of Juan Florez Ocariz, one of the most erudite authors who deal with genealogical matters.

HERNAN PEREZ DE IBIAS was much esteemed by King Alfonso XI.

ALVAR GOMEZ DE IBIAS appears about this time, being knighted as a Knight of the Banda by the Rico-hombre Rui Perez Ponte, his uncle, along with another nine, all Asturians, in the year 1332 as noted in the chronicles of Alfonso XI and of Garcia e Nobilitate (Gloss 7, No. 18). He was Lord of IBIAS and the House of Arbas descends from him.

During his youth, JUAN PEREZ DE IBIAS was the Page of Don Pedro I of Castille, as mentioned by Alfonso de Torres in the third part of his TIMBRES HERÁLDICOS, and later he was the King's Falconer Major. He was married to DOÑA TERESA YAÑEZ VILLAMIL, daughter of JUAN VILLAMIL and of DOÑA MARIA SANCHEZ DE RON, "both of very noble families of Asturias, as their name attest," says Alfonso de Torres.

PEDRO YAÑEZ DE IBIAS was a very powerful gentleman, of whom many memories remain in the House of Sierra de Llamas del Mouro, in the lands of Cangas. He served Kings Don Enrique II and his son Don Juan I as Confectioner Major, a post that was only conferred in those times to knights of the highest nobility.
95 He was married to DOÑA CASILDA MARTINEZ DE SIERRA and was Lord of Pambley, Portiella, and Trascastro, in addition to the House of Llamas. The House of Llamas is one of the most notable of Asturias, as it is graced by the presence of Rodrigo de Sierra, Canon of Tarragona. After having joined the Cistercian Order in the Convent of Escala Dei (famous amongst the Basques) and while he was Abbot of Fitero, he took over the village of Calatrava and its lands from King Don Sancho III in 1150 in order to defend it with his friars against the Moorish forces that were threatening it. He later founded the glorious military Order of Calatrava in 1158. Catalan writers are intent in declaring this Rodrigo, Abbot of Fitero a Catalan, but the only thing Catalan about him is the Catalanized surname that they referred him by during his many years as Canon of Tarragona, i.e., Fray Rodrigo Serra instead of Fray Rodrigo Sierra, which corresponds to him by way of his ancestral house and family tree.

In the Battle of Aljubarrota against Portugal by King Don Juan I in 1385, where the flower of Spanish Nobility perished, the GRAND PRIOR OF THE ORDER OF SAN JUAN
96, DON PEDRO DIAZ DE IBIAS Y RON died. Several privileges were confirmed by him, among which is the donation of the County of Noreña to the Bishop of Oviedo in the year 1383. His name again appears in the same year in the Concord (agreement) that he settled in the name of the King with the Counts of Gijón and Noreña, and in 1385 in the Cortes of Segovia, where he renews the Fuero of Llanes that had been granted by King Alfonso IX.

Sancho PEREZ DE IBIAS served Kings Don Juan I and his son Don Enrique III during their various wars. He was Governor of Orense and was married to DOÑA ANA FERNANDEZ DE MOSCOSO of the House of Osorio and had with her several children.

ALVARO DE IBIAS and ALFONSO DE IBIAS are found in the days of Don Juan II (27 July 1431) in the great battle that took place on this date in the vega
97 of Granada, where their brother GARCIA FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS died during the battle, as affirmed by Sotomayor, where the three brothers deported themselves as good, valiant soldiers, executing brilliant feats of arms. This GARCIA FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS was one of the Asturian knights that most opposed the depredations performed in Asturias by the Count of Gijón. He was married to DOÑA CATALINA FERNANDEZ PONTE, daughter of FERNANDO RODRIGUEZ PONTE of the House of Villamar and of Doña Palla, and of his wife DOÑA MARIA DIAZ DE MIRANDA, of the illustrious House of her surname, in the Council of Miranda, which today are Marquises of Vallecarzana and Grandees of Spain. Upon the death of GARCIA FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS, the Señorio of IBIAS was partitioned between his two daughters, DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS and DOÑA MARIA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS, dividing it by the creek called San Román: the part of San Antolín with the reserved lands of Marentes and Sena to the first, and the part containing Cecos with Tormaleo for the second.

DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS married MACIA PEREZ DE IBIAS Y BOLAÑO, Lord of Cubillos, and DOÑA MARIA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS married LOPE ALFONSO DE LACIANA, son of PER ALVAREZ DE LACIANA and his wife BERENGUELA LOPEZ, Lords of the House of Laciana. The division of the Señorio of IBIAS soon ceased, for DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y CUBILLOS (daughter of DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS and MACIA PEREZ DE IBIAS Y BOLAÑO) married DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y MIRANDA, son of DOÑA MARIA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS and LOPE ALFONSO DE LACIANA, so by way of this matrimony the Señorio of IBIAS was reunited, and to it added by inheritance the Señorios of Cubillos and Laciana, forming in this manner a very powerful and influential house in those times, as many genealogists affirm.

DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y MIRANDA himself governed and sat as judge of IBIAS. During his tenure he ordered that a man be hung, as described [years later] by the depositions of several witnesses in the suit that various neighbors of Ibias filed contesting the jurisdiction and leadership of the Council, based on the Royal Provision issued by the Chancellery of Valladolid in 1518, where it was declared that the Señorio of IBIAS is immemorial and vastly predates the claim by Prince of Asturias. He frequently lived (with his wife, DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y CUBILLOS) in Cangas de Tineo, in their house on the summit of the village, which because of its dimensions and because it was the largest house-palace of the village it was called El Palación, located in the Refierta Plaza. In that house, DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y MIRANDA dictated his Will in 11 May 1483 to the Scribe Alvaro Garcia de Tineo, where he declares his desire to be buried in the Monastery of Corias, and to which he bequeathed [his properties in] Rubial and Llamera. He also bequeathed various pious legacies to the Churches of Magdalena de Cangas, San Miguel de Laciana, Riolabeo, Cecos, and San Antolín de Ibias. He left Arias de Omaña, his brother, what he owns in the village of Viverio and its environs; to Aldonza, his sister, all [that he has] in Rui de Castiello; to Juan Garcia de Tineo, his nephew, what he owns in the villages of Perlunes and Aquino and its surroundings to be his for all time; to MACIA, his grandson and to DIEGO [MACIAS' brother], sons of SANCHO LOPEZ DE RON, the SEÑORIO DE IBIAS; to ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ, his wife, a fourth of all the estate, plus what the both built in Cubillos, IBIAS (without harvests) until MACIA becomes of age, plus what belongs to EMILIA, their daughter until she becomes of age. The remainder of the estate, he gives to his children and grandchildren, naming as executors his wife DOÑA ALDONZA, SANCHO LOPEZ DE RON and others.

In 1490, DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y MIRANDA died and his widow, DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y CUBILLOS, lived until 1515, leaving as sole heirs to the Houses of Ibias, Cubillos, and Laciana their daughters DOÑA EMILIA GONZALEZ DE IBIAS and DOÑA MARIA ARES DE IBIAS. DOÑA MARIA DE BECERRA and her husband GONZALO DE BECERRA Y LLAMAS represented the rights of DOÑA MARIA DE BECERRA's mother, DOÑA BERENGUELA DE IBIAS, who had already died. GONZALO DE BECERRA Y LLAMAS was of the illustrious family of de Becerra y Llamas of Moreira, a great soldier of the Catholic Monarchs, to which he served in the War of Granada, executing great feats. He enjoyed the special protection of the King and Queen, whom he accompanied in their trip to Galicia, dying on that trip in the city of Santiago when he was about to receive as reward for his extraordinary services the Señorio of Navia y Burón. This Señorio, however, was a behetria
98, and because of his unexpected death had to be given to another gentleman who later sold it to the Count of Altamira.

The arms of de Becerra consist of two red calves on a blue field. Those of de Llamas de Moreira consist of red flames on a gold field.

DOÑA MARIA DE BECERRA was married to LOPE OSORIO DE ALTAMIRA and founded her family in Cubillos. In a few generations her successors of her estate were DON ALONSO DE LANZÓS OSORIO DE RON and DON ALONSO DE RON OSORIO, which very soon afterwards melded into the estates of Tineo, Priaranza, and others.

In 1515, after DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS died, the neighbors of Ibias filed a noisy lawsuit against her daughters and heirs, alleging that the Señorio of Ibias (with its jurisdictional rights) did not belong to them, because as the Council of Ibias was in Asturias the jurisdictional and seigniorial rights belonged to the Prince. After claims were made by both sides, the Royal Chancellery of Valladolid reached a definitive decision in 1518 based on the Royal Executionary Letter already cited (found in the House of Ibias) reaffirming the seigniorial and jurisdictional rights of Ibias to the Lords of the House of IBIAS. They further ruled that the rights of luctuosa
99 and yantares100 and the right of naming Merinos101 to execute civil and criminal jurisdiction and penas de camara102 in their name did not belong to the Prince, as this SEÑORIO DE IBIAS was from time immemorial, being ruled by its Lords since a date that far preceded the creation of the Principate of Asturias.

The House of IBIAS was once again divided in three parts. One part for DOÑA EMILIA GONZALEZ DE IBIAS consisting in the estates and Señorios of Cecos, with the enclosed lands and Señorio of Marentes; another part for DOÑA MARIA ARES DE IBIAS consisting of the estates of San Antolín and Tormaleo with the reserved lands of Sena with its jurisdictions and Señorios; and a final third to DOÑA MARIA DE BECERRA, only child of DOÑA BERENGUELA LOPEZ DE IBIAS and GONZALO DE BECERRA consisting of the estates, Señorios, and jurisdictions of Cubillos and Laciana in el Bierzo.

DOÑA EMILIA GONZALEZ DE IBIAS married DON GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS, Lord of the House of Quirós, of whom the genealogists highly eulogize and refer to by the name "The Small King of Asturias". Both are buried in the Main Chapel of the Convent of San Francisco de Oviedo, where until recently one could read their memorial tablets inlaid on the wall:

"Here lies the noble and virtuous Señora Emilia Gonzalez, Lady of Ibias and Cubillos wife of the noble gentleman Gonzalo Bernaldo de Quirós who endowed this sepulcher and bequeathed to this Monastery ten fanegas
103 of bread per year for all eternity; the friars of this Monastery are obligated to offer two sung Requiem Masses every month, one on the first day of the month and the other in the middle of the month, with two responsorials, one over this sepulcher and the other over that of Señor Gonzalo Bernaldo for ever and ever. Died 12 August 1521."

Joining this sepulcher is found that of GONZALO BERNALDO, her husband, who had died on 2 April 1515, according to the inscription.

Today, these memorial tablets and others of the Quirós family found there do not exist, as the Church and Convent were destroyed to make way for Fruela Street and to build the Palace of the Provincial Deputation.

104 Bernaldo de Quiros, who married Doña Maria Enríquez, daughter of the Admiral of Castille Don Fernando Enríquez and did not have children; and DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y QUIROS who married LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON and together in 1521 founded the vínculo of the House of RON Y IBIAS, which, now cited, will be mentioned again later.

DOÑA MARIA ARES DE IBIAS married DON SANCHO LOPEZ DE RON, of the House of RON, as mentioned previously. She was the owner of the third of the House of IBIAS which consisted of the principal house of Cuantas with the Señorios and jurisdictions of San Antolín, Tormaleo, and Coto [the reserved lands] of Sena, along with many other estates, rents, and patronages. They had, among other children and heirs, DOÑA URRACA DE RON E IBIAS, who married Lope de Miranda and took with her as dowry the Coto and Señorio of Sena with its civil and criminal jurisdiction. At a later date, the House of Miranda used this same Señorio as dowry for one of their daughters who married the Lord of Allende, and this family, in turn, gave it later as dowry to DOÑA ELVIRA DE CIENFUEGOS Y DE LA RIVERA when she married ALVARO DIAZ DE RON Y QUIROS. This lady sold the Señorio to the Viscount of Castoasa, Lord of the House of Váscones, and from there passed to the house of the Marquis of Ferrera, where it remained.

Don Lope de Miranda served the Catholic Monarchs in the War of Granada and was Lord of Villanueva del Infantado and of the House of Miranda. In 1515, he assisted in resolving the differences between the Bishop of Oviedo, Don Diego de Muros and the Cabildo. His third grandson was Don Sancho de Miranda y Ponce, who served in the siege of Fuenterrabia, taking with him 100 Asturian hidalgos equipped and maintained at his own cost, and because of his many good services King Felipe IV made him Marquis of Valdecarnaza, and today his successors are Grandees of Spain.

DON DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y RON, also a child of DOÑA MARIA ARES DE IBIAS and DON SANCHO LOPEZ DE RON married DOÑA CONSTANZA OSORIO, renewing with this marriage the ancient and often-repeated family relationship with the House of Osorio, Marquises of Astorga and Counts of Altamira.

He was Captain of War in the Council of IBIAS, and in 1540 founded the mayorazgo of the HOUSE OF IBIAS DE CUANTAS in favor of his son DON BALTASAR DE IBIAS OSORIO, consisting of vassals, civil and criminal jurisdiction; the rents, patronages, and real estate that he owned in the jurisdiction of San Antolín de Ibias and in the parish of San Jorge de Tormaleo; the entire cited Council of Ibias along with the apresentaciones
105 that he owned in the Kingdom of León and in the Principate and four sacadas106 of Asturias; other parts that belonged to him by inheritance, plus all goods that belonged to him in any other part. All of this he placed in the said vínculo107, which was granted in Trabado on the last day of September of the referred year before the Scribe Diego Lopez de Villamaña.

<PICTURE: Untitled. Seven Coats-of-Arms, presumably belonging to the IBIAS.>

DON BALTASAR DE IBIAS, his son, succeeded him and personally managed the jurisdiction corresponding to the HOUSE OF IBIAS DE CUANTAS, which became him by way of the vínculo founded by his father, who was the first of that name. He was married to DOÑA TERESA MENDEZ DE NAVIA, daughter of GUTIERRE DE NAVIA of the House of Gallegos and descendants of the House of Llamas de Moreira. Their arms are a planted pine with a cross of equal length arms superimposed on the foliage, on a gold field.

DON DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS, his son and successor of this house, founded in 1575 a new vínculo, consolidating the older vínculo founded by his grandfather DON DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y RON with the acquisitions made by him and his father, and conveniently granting to the secondary sons of the House with the corresponding foodstuffs while they were not of age. He was married to DOÑA MARIA DE BARRERO, Lady of the House of this surname, one of the most important of Ibias. Their arms consist of a divided shield: 1st a band of gold and two scallop shells at the sides on a gules field; 2nd on a synople field a castle with a soldier at the door armed with a lance and three silver stars.

Their son and heir of both, DON DIEGO DE IBIAS did not have succession, and for that reason the vínculo and Señorio of this House passed to his brother, DON LOPE DE IBIAS, who already held the post of Captain of War as the future successor. He was married to DOÑA LUCRECIA DE TORMALEO, Lady of the House of that surname, with whom he had many sons and daughters. The arms of Tormaleo consists of a lion coming out of a cave, on a blue field.

Because of an absence of succession, Bartolomé de Tormaleo (who was named heir in his -- DON DIEGO DE IBIAS's -- Will) who was married to their granddaughter DOÑA LUISA DE IBIAS (daughter of their son DON DIEGO DE IBIAS and DOÑA FRANCISCA VALLEDOR), the House of Tormaleo receives the free goods
108 of the HOUSE OF IBIAS, and as compensation for these, receives the Señorio of Tormaleo with many other estates. The Vínculo and Señorio of San Antolín and its aggregate towns are received by his nephew DON FRANCISCO ARIAS DE PATAGUIN IBIAS Y RON by a re-arrangement of the agreement set forth in the vínculo. He is Lord of the House of PATAGUIN in Villarmeirín, an ancestral house located in Armería of ancient nobility, originating from Juan and Pedro Rodríguez de Pataguín, who fought in the Battle of Navas de Tolosa, according to Barreiro, Chronicler and King of Arms of King Felipe IV. Their arms consist of six golden staffs on a gules field, bordered by eight crossed of San Juan (Saint John) on a blue field.

DON FRANCISCO ARIAS DE PATAGUIN IBIAS Y RON was married to DOÑA LUISA PEREZ DE MURIAS, Lady of the ancestral House of Murias in the valley of Rao of Navia de Suarna, which has as arms an eagle rampant crowned with gold on a blue field. Their daughter, DOÑA MARIA DE IBIAS was owner and proprietress of the House of IBIAS Y CUANTAS which she received upon the death of her brother DON MATIAS DE IBIAS. In 1694, she married DON BARTOLOME FRANCISCO DE VALCARCE Y RON, owner of the House of Valcarce of San Esteban de Valdueza, in El Bierzo, who was the successor of the vínculo of RON E IBIAS when the last owner, DON FRANCISCO DE RON BERNALDO DE QUIROS who left no direct issue. This succession corresponded to him as he was the grandson of DOÑA ANTONIA DE RON, as will be mentioned later.

<PICTURE: The coat-of-arms of the Quirós House.>

The Quirós House

The House of Quirós is one of the of the most exalted of the nobility of Asturias. It originated with ANDECA, Duke of Cantabria, who died with King Don Rodrigo in the Battle of Guadalete and is mentioned by Hauberto in his chronicle and Argaez in his POBLACION ECLESIASTICA. Upon the death of Veremundo, the legitimate Duke of Cantabria, his brother ANDECA usurped the Duchy from his nephew Fabila (the legitimate heir) in the year 700. Notwithstanding this usurpation, Fabila was always referred to as the Duke of Cantabria. After Fabila died, his son was called INFANTE DON PELAYO but never Duke of Cantabria, because after ANDECA died at Guadalete this title passed to Don Pedro, the last brother of Veremundo, father of Don Alfonso (the Catholic), who succeeded KING DON PELAYO as King Alfonso I as he was PELAYO's son-in-law, being married to PELAYO's daughter Ermesenda. From ANDECA descends BERNALDO XIMENEZ, Rico-hombre of León, and of whom the most notable genealogists, such as Salazer de Mendoza (DIGNIDADES DE CASTILLA Y DE LEON); Pellicer, Mendez de Silva (NOBILIARIO DE LA CASA DE VALDÉS); Father Gabriel de Henao (EMPYROLOGIA); Don Felipe Bernaldo de Quirós (LA CASA DE OLLONIEGO); and Carvallo (ANTIGUEDADES Y COSAS MEMORABLES DE ASTURIAS), acknowledge as being the main branch of the House of Quirós. The main reason is that BERNALDO XIMENEZ was the founder of the ancestral house of Caso, from which by way of XIMENO BERNALDO and SUERO XIMENEZ
109 (both also Ricos-hombres), descend via the male line GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS, who governed the Council of Quirós and assisted King Don Fernando III (The Saint) in the siege of Baeza, being one if the four-hundred knights who received hereditary lands, and whose arms are sculpted on the arch of the church of said village.

GUTIERREZ GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS, Rico-hombre of Castille, received from DON RODRIGO ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS the village and reserved lands of Villoria as a donation made in his favor as heir and successor to that place, as confirmed by Don Enrique
110, Count of Trastámara. This gentleman served King Alfonso XI, who armed him Knight of the Banda, as recorded in the chronicle of this kingdom. He was married to DOÑA MARIA CIFUENTES, Lady of the illustrious family of ALVAREZ DE ASTURIAS, and with whom he had his son and successor GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS. GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS served King Don Pedro who died in an unhappy manner on the fields of Montiel, causing great differences between the Asturian knights regarding the recognition as king of his brother Don Enrique. An acceptable agreement was reached involving depositing the keys of the city of Oviedo in the hands of said GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS, who accepted this honor. This caused a memorable lawsuit by DON ALVARO DIAZ DE RON and Gonzalo de Fontecha, Dean of Oviedo and later Bishop of Burgos, as recorded by Carvallo in his cited work. GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS kept the keys until he was ordered to hand them over to Pedro Suaréz de Quiñones. Memory of this event originated the coat-of-arms of the House of Quirós, which consists of two linked keys with three silver shells on each side, and one fleur-de-lis on top and two below on a blue field, all surrounded by a rope belt of San Francisco and bordered in silver with a motto reading: "DESPUES DE DIOS LA CASA DE QUIROS."111 He was a highly accomplished Knight of la Banda, as noted by Don Felipe Bernaldo de Quiros in his MEMORIAL DE LA CASA DE OLLONIEGO. At the end of his life, he assumed the habit and took the Order of San Francisco112, which he professed until he died. He was buried in the Convent of San Francisco of the City of Oviedo, and for this reason the rope belt of Saint Francis surrounds the arms of the House of Quirós.

IBAN (Juan) BERNALDO DE QUIROS was the successor of this House and was a very distinguished knight in the days of Kings Don Enrique III and Don Juan II. When Don Alonso Enrique Enriquez, Count of Gijón, launched in Asturias his last rebellion, it was IBAN BERNALDO DE QUIROS who defended the lands of the Bishop of Oviedo from the tyrannies of the Count. He founded and endowed a sepulcher for his internment in the Convent of San Francisco, where his ancestors were buried (offering the Guardian of the Convent a document recording this in 3 July 1444), charging the convent with the offering of some masses. All of this has disappeared, as was said before, for the convent was demolished when the city was enlarged. He was married to DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE GUZMAN, Lady of the House of Toral.

His son, LOPE BERNALDO DE QUIROS succeeded him in this House and served King Don Juan II, in whose name assisted in the recovery of what certain nobles, and especially the Quiñones had usurped from the Royal Vínculo, re-created in favor of Don Enrique, and in the name of this Prince he took possession of the city of Oviedo.

JUAN BERNALDO DE QUIROS was tutor and guardian of Don Enrique IV. By virtue of Royal Authority granted in 28 January 1478 he founded the vínculo and mayorazgo of his possessions on the 18th of that same year. He was married to DOÑA BEATRIZ CABEZA DE VACA, of that illustrious family of León, and his son, GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS succeeded him.


IBAN BERNALDO DE QUIROS was married to Doña Maria Enriquez, daughter of Don Fernando Enriquez, Admiral of Castille. DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y QUIROS married DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON, Lord of the HOUSE OF RON.

IBAN BERNALDO DE QUIROS died without succession and upon his death his sister, DOÑA ALDONZA, was in line to inherit the vínculos and mayorazgos of the House of Quirós, as she was the only remaining child of GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS and DOÑA EMILIA GONZALEZ DE IBIAS. This caused a long and noisy lawsuit between DON FRANCISCO BERNALDO DE QUIROS, male of the second line, and DON ALVARO DIAZ DE RON Y QUIROS, first son of DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y QUIROS and DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON. The judgment ruled by the Royal Chancellery of Valladolid in 1502 (according to the Executionary letter issued the following 26 March legalized by Mateo Alemán, Scribe of the Chamber) declared that said mayorazgo of Quirós belonged to Don Francisco Bernaldo, the cousin of DON ALVARO DIAZ DE RON Y QUIROS, as he was the most immediate male from the transversal line and mayorazgos were rigorously agnatic
113. By reason of this ruling, ALVARO DIAZ DE RON as a descendant from the female line, lost the useful part of the estate. Nevertheless, he did not lose the right to claim the merits of the Quirós family (which is a natural right, not dependent on written clauses), and the RON HOUSE and its successors can rightfully claim the services and merits achieved by its ancestors, which are not exceeded by any other family in Asturias. Most singular among these are the services performed to King Don Enrique II by GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS who was Ambassador to England, and to King Don Juan I (his son), whose Alferez Mayor was GUTIERREZ BERNALDO DE QUIROS, who with LOPE GONZALEZ and GARCIA GONZALEZ (his brothers) and JUAN BERNALDO DE QUIROS (his uncle), died in the Battle of Aljubarrota, as is written about in the histories of Portugal and Castille, specially in Padre Luis Alfonso Carvallo's ANTIGUEDADES Y COSAS MEMORABLES DE ASTURIAS, in the genealogy that Don Jose Pellicer y Tovar (principal Chronicler of the Kingdom) published at the request of Don Facundo Cabeza de Vaca, and in the Memorial that Gutierrez Bernaldo de Quirós presented to obtain the title of Marquis de Campo Sagrado.

<PICTURE: The Palace of RON, in Pesoz (which formed part of the vínculo of Ron e Ibias in 1521).>

The Ron, Ibias, and Quirós House

DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON was Lord of the HOUSE OF RON and of the villages of Cecos, San Antolín de Ibias and its lands, of the enclosed lands of Marentes, Sena, and La Brañota, Captain of War of the Councils of Grandas de Salime, Pesoz y Salime, as his ancestors had been since time immemorial, as stated in the Royal Executionary Letter granted in the Royal War Council, whose records are in the land section of its Secretariat. He contracted matrimony in 1518 with DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y QUIROS, Lady of the HOUSE OF QUIROS and of IBIAS, as remaining child of GONZALO BERNALDO DE QUIROS and DOÑA EMILIA GONZALEZ DE IBIAS, granted in her favor by Royal Authority in Barcelona by Don Carlos and Doña Juana in 1519.

In Pesoz, on 29 August 1521 they founded the Mayorazgo de Ron e Ibias with the estates and rents of their fortified house and Castle of Pesoz, their vineyards and hereditary lands; the villages of San Payo, Reboqueira, Villar in Sanzo, and Santa Maria de Grandas; the village of Malneira and the places of Nogueirou and Castro de Grandas; the places of Pelorde and Braña de Laredo; all [the properties] in the parish of Saniesteban de los Buitres, along with Doredo and Villameá and the ironworks of Villaseca; the enclosed lands of Rececende and all the properties in the Council of Miranda, the Council of Allande, the Council of Ibias (vassals, jurisdictions, rights of luctuosa and yantares, and penas de camara); all [the properties] in the valley of Lorenzana, the enclosed lands of Cañada, and Cadofeita; Braña de la Brañota with its civil and criminal jurisdiction with Bousoño and Asola, with Vilano del Monte, with Vinjoy and Pensol and Requejo, with the benefit of Rececende and the ...
114; all the properties in Rio de Cabras and Barreiros; all the properties in the Council of Burón with those of the Council of Castropol and Grandas, with the ironworks of Sueriro and Montealegre as they are and as they were purchased from the Marquis of Astorga. They name as successor of this Mayorazgo ALVARO DIAS DE RON, their eldest legitimate son and his descendants, with the male descendent being preferred over the female line, and the eldest over the younger. If the eldest son does not have descendants, the second son would inherit, and if the second son has no descendants then the third son would inherit, and after this one any of their sons that they had, and for lack of these the daughters; and if sons or daughters are lacking, the relative of the nearest lineage who is legitimate and born of a legitimate marriage.

<PICTURE: The fortified house of Ibias in Cecos, which formed part of the vínculo of Ron e Ibias in 1521.>

A condition of this Mayorazgo is that its possessor always take the surname RON with its arms, and if the shield has several arms, then those of RON must always occupy the right quarter. The penalty of contravening these conditions is the loss of the Mayorazgo, which would then pass to the next person in grade. Also, this Mayorazgo cannot be passed to a person who descends from a Moor or Jew, nor from any other condition condemned by the Holy Inquisition. It was signed before Alsono Rodríguez de Ribadeo.

In the year 1554, DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON, with his wife DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS now dead, and while preparing for a trip to Rome, founded a new mayorazgo linking a third and a fifth of the estates belonging to him in the Councils of Castropol, Grandas de Salime, Ibias, and Miranda, plus those in the Council and valley of Lorenzana, in the Councils of Burón, Navia de Luarca and Navia de Suarna and Allande, etc., etc., with all the houses, vassals, jurisdictions to his eldest son ALVARO DIAZ, along with all the acquisitions that he had made, as well as all that he had inherited from his mother DOÑA SANCHA DE PARGA, and all the Fueros of Orders, Monasteries, and Churches that he has and that belong to him, which he gives as possession to the said son ALVARO DIAZ. Additionally, he includes 3,000 ducats owed to him be the Count of Salinas, plus all the livestock of Brañas and its community. He orders his son to sell this livestock and to employ the proceeds along with the referred 3,000 ducats on vassals if they are sold in the Kingdom of Galicia or in the cuatro sacadas of Asturias, else they should be employed on estates which would then become part of the mayorazgo along the livestock of Brañas. Other beneficiaries of this mayorazgo will be his legitimate daughters DOÑA MAYOR and DOÑA MARIA, professed nuns of the Monastery of Villalobos.

That his son ALVARO DIAZ will be succeeded by his male children, and for lack of these his daughters, preferring the sons over the daughters and the eldest over the younger. That if he lacked legitimate children, his bastard sons would succeed him, even if these were bastards, as long as they are from an hidalga woman without stain and are not descendants of Moors or Jews, and that he be a male son and not a daughter. For lack of these, that this mayorazgo would be succeeded by PEDRO DE MIRANDA DE RON with the same conditions; followed by DOÑA SANCHA DE RON (his daughter), and if God forbids she would die without legitimate children, the mayorazgo should go to DOÑA EMILIA DE RON and her legitimate descendants born of legitimate marriages; and lacking these, the successor shall be GONZALO BERNALDO, his son, and if he dies without male or female nor other legitimate descendants born of legitimate marriages, "I want, and it is my will that the successor should be Hernán Gonzalez de RON, my natural son and his descendants, and if he dies without children and legitimate descendants, the successor shall be Constanza Vázquez de RON, my natural daughter, wife of Diego Suárez de Prelo, and if she should have no legitimate descendants, the successor shall be the nearest, eldest relative of the last possessor, preferring the nearest over the more remote, the eldest over the younger, the direct line over the transversal one, and the grandchild of the eldest son over the brother." It also notes that this mayorazgo cannot be possessed by any woman who has lived dishonestly, who had had children outside of a legitimate marriage, or who had married without the consent of her parents.

That when the right of succession of this mayorazgo fall to an unmarried woman, that she must marry her closest relative to the RON House at the time that she is ready for marriage, and if she marries otherwise she would lose the right to succeed and the mayorazgo would pass to the next in grade.

That this mayorazgo shall not be inherited by any bastard son or daughter excepting those already named, and that it is not sufficient to have themselves legitimized by the Pope or the King, and also that the mayorazgo cannot be inherited by any cleric of Holy Orders, friar, nun, or beata, even if the habit was taken honestly, nor by any person from any order or religion except if it were a military order that would allow him to achieve legitimate succession. That this mayorazgo cannot be inherited by any monastery or church, municipal council, convent, confraternity, university or school, and if any successor enters a religious order it should go to his or her legitimate children born before his or her entry.

That the mayorazgo cannot go to any person judged insane, retarded, or any similar condition, nor to a monstrous man, nor to a person blind or mute from birth, going instead to the next in grade, who would have the obligation of sustaining with dignity any person who because of these defect is deemed incapable.

That the mayorazgo cannot go to any person judged incapable, squanderous, or legally committed to medical care, passing to the next in grade.

That whomever commits "crimen lesa mayestatia divina et humana o el crimen nefando contra natura"
115 or any other crime that would cause him to lose his estate would be excluded from the inheritance of this mayorazgo which would pass to the next in line.

That the possessor of the mayorazgo must always use the surname RON with its coat-of-arms, and if he or she comes into another mayorazgo having the same conditions, that the coat-of-arms be split to contain both emblems.

That no person descendant of Moors or Jews or any other law condemned by the Holy Inquisition in a manner that can be proven can succeed in this mayorazgo.

He leaves as sustenance 300,000 maravedies to every legitimate male child and to DOÑA SANCHA 1,500 ducats for her marriage, and that if she chooses to be a nun only the monetary amount should go to her, excluding the clothes she has already received. DOÑA EMILIA, besides what she has already received, an additional 200 ducats, stating that she must renounce her maternal and paternal inheritances.

That the possessors of the mayorazgo shall take care of the second children of the House based on different rules that he establishes.

He authorizes his son ALVARO DIAZ to sell furniture and to augment the estates of the mayorazgo with the product of the estates that he possesses and the Señorios, without reserving the profits nor any other thing.

He nullifies and assigns no value any other donation, improvement or entail that he had made previously, but ratifies those offered with his wife DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ, except when they oppose the current document.

It was executed in Zamora on 23 January 1554 before Francisco de Vivas.

Not withstanding the clauses and firm statements declared in this document, another document appears the next day signed by ALVARO DIAZ DE RON, stating:

"Say I, ALVARO DIAZ DE RON, that as my Lord father LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON made for me a mayorazgo of all his estates, his will and intention was to reserve for himself the right and power to revoke, change, and exclude all or part as he wished from said mayorazgo, even after I took possession of it, and that not withstanding the firm clauses and renunciations that I have granted, I am certain and wish to serve him to his content and do his will, and so that there is no doubt, with this document I confess that everything that I have stated is true and that I consent in all of it, and that he can revoke, change, add, or subtract as he wishes, and I promise to do so, and as a true statement I sign this with my name in Zamora, 24 January 1554. ALVARO DIAZ DE RON"

Upon returning from his trip to Rome, DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON founded the third mayorazgo. In Cecos on 22 October 1555 he declares that he had made a donation of a third and a fifth by way of a mayorazgo in favor of his son, ALVARO DIAZ, granting him the power to take possession of it as he had promised before the document was granted to be obedient to it and leave for him (DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON) the profit of all the estates for when God granted his return from the trip to Rome, promising also to provide him with money, all of which he failed to do. That his son revoked the profit clause of the document, and was ungrateful and disobedient, managed things badly, took things from said estates and left them in poverty and need, and because of other causes and reasons, using the document of His Majesty he revokes the document given in Pezos in 1521 and that granted in Zamora in 1554, as well as any other document that he may have granted.

He proceeds to found another mayorazgo with the same links and vínculos established in Zamora before Francisco de Vivas, stating what was taking place and transferring everything to GONZALO BERNALDO, his son, so that neither ALVARO DIAZ nor PEDRO MIRANDA, their sons and descendants could succeed in the mayorazgo nor in part of it, but instead that it should all go to the son or daughter of GONZALO BERNALDO, and that if God wishes that said GONZALO BERNALDO have no children or grandchildren that may succeed him, that the same clauses would apply to DOÑA SANCHA, his daughter, and that if God does not grant her a son or legitimate heir that it should pass to DOÑA EMILIA DE RON, his daughter, or her heir, and if no heir was available that it should pass to the closest heir that belongs to and comes from the House of RON and of said LOPE NUÑEZ, and lacking these, the son or daughter of CONSTANZA VAZQUEZ, his natural daughter, with the same conditions. And he states that it is his wish that from that day on GONZALO BERNALDO, his son, should be considered the successor of the mayorazgo, who from this moment he is granting him its possession, reserving for himself, LOPE NUÑEZ the dominion and profit of the estate for the remaining of his life with all the jurisdictions, vassals, and furniture contained in said estates now and until the day of his death, etc., etc. Before Lorenzo de Palencia.

One year later, on 7 August 1556, Señor LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON wrote his will in Valladolid. In it, after the usual and common clauses and some privileges disposed by him, he stated that he left his daughter DOÑA SANCHA 2,000 gold ducats for her legitimate marriage which would be renounced
116 to his legitimate son and DOÑA SANCHA's brother GONZALO BERNALDO. To his servant Rui Perez he leaves 30,000 maravedises for his marriage. In the matter of his soul, he funds and orders that 300 masses be sung, half in Pesoz and the other half in San Martín de Oscos, and provides 10,000 maravedieses for this purpose. And if God were to be served by taking him with this illness, that his body be taken to Santiago de Pesoz, and to execute what was written he names GONZALO BERNALDO and Sancho Lopez de Ron, to whom he empowers with the right to sell of his property until his will has been executed. And he orders his servant Alonso de Villarin that if God takes him with this illness he should take these documents, clothes, and other things that he has here to his son GONZALO BERNALDO, his son.

Witnesses to this will are Bartolomé Cabeza and Juan de Villanaje, Juan Lópe de Angulo (lord of the House of Sopolonar), Alonso Diaz de Ron (Cleric), and Alonso de Villarin (Cleric). Before Lorenzo de Palencia.

The founding of the three mayorazgos referred to here with such contrary instructions would naturally result in a lawsuit between the heirs. And in fact, ALVARO DIAZ and GONZALO BERNALDO did not hesitate in starting long and costly legal proceedings which lasted over twenty years before the Royal Chancellery of Valladolid, before the Royal Council and the Hall of 1,500 Turns
117, yielding contradictory rulings and different Royal Executionary Letters successively conceded in favor of each litigant, as detailed in the voluminous case that exists in the Archives of the Royal Chancellery of Valladolid, an authentic copy of which is in the possession of the author.

The final judgment of the lawsuit favored ALVARO DIAZ DE RON with the estates, rents, and Señorios of the House of IBIAS, which proceeded from his mother and granted to him by the 1521 document, plus a third and a fifth of the estates corresponding to LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON, his father, and the rest to GONZALO BERNALDO DE RON, granting each the legal entity of a mayorazgo. It cannot even be guessed how this came about, for none of the mayorazgo documents make this adjudication, as their incongruence is manifest. This, however, became irrelevant, for thirty years later the line of ALVARO DIAZ became extinct
118, and all these estates fell into the hands of DON ANTONIO DE RON VALCARCE, grandson of GONZALO BERNALDO, as son of his daughter DOÑA ALDONZA DE RON Y ARMESTO.

ALVARO DIAZ DE RON Y QUIROS was married to DOÑA ELVIRA DE CIENFUEGOS Y RIVERA, daughter of GUTIERRE DE CIENFUEGOS, Lord of Allende y Muros, Knight of the Order of Santiago, who after serving the King for many years in various honorable posts, died being the Corregidor of the City of Salamanca, and of his wife DOÑA MARIA DE LA RIVERA, Lady of said house, whose successors obtained in 1643 the title of Counts of Peñalva.

Their daughter, DOÑA ANTONIA DE RON Y CIENFUEGOS married the Licenciado ALVARO PEREZ DE NAVIA. Lord of Valdoselle and of the House of Lienes, and there being no successors, the mayorazgo of RON E IBIAS passed on to DON ANTONIO DE RON Y VALCARCE, as was said before.

GONZALO BERNALDO DE RON Y QUIROS was married to DOÑA MARIA DE ARMESTO Y VALCARCE, daughter of GONZALO DE ARMESTO, Lord of de la Vega de Forcas and of the House of his surname, whose arms are a gold cross loaded with five red and silver scallop-shells in a blue field. They had as their only child DOÑA ALDONZA DE RON Y ARMESTO, married to the Licenciado DON FRANCISCO DE VARCARCE Y BALBOA, son of ALVARO PEREZ DE VALCARCE and DOÑA MARIA DE VALCARCE, this lady being the daughter of GOMEZ DE VALCARCE and he the son of ANTONIO DE VALCARCE of the House of Doncos. The House of Doncos was succeeded through the male line by the Count of Ayala as the eldest son of RODRIGO DE VALCARCE, Mayor of the fortress of Villafranca and descendant through the male line of the Lords of Cabrera y Rivera and from DOÑA ANA DE BALBOA
119, daughter of DIEGO ARIAS DE BALBOA, Lord of the enclosed lands of Cañedo.

From this illustrious family descends DON ANTONIO DE RON Y VALCARCE, who inherited the vínculo of RON E IBIAS being the great-grandson of DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON and DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS Y QUIROS, their founder. DON ANTONIO DE RON Y VALCARCE had to prefer the surname RON over VALCARCE which primarily corresponded to him
120 (even though it was so notable and illustrious) in order to obey the clause of the foundation of the mayorazgo which required this.

DON ANTONIO DE RON Y VALCARCE served the King for over 40 years as Captain of War in the Councils of Ibias, Grandas de Salime, Pezos, and Salime, was the first to assist the nearby sea ports during surprise attacks, and when the Licenciado Don Antonio Valdés, of the Royal Council of Castille went to request a donation to the Principate of Asturias he charged the said Don Antonio (aware of his exactitude) with collecting from the neighboring Councils, as he did with great benefit to the Royal Estate.

This Captaincy of War had been held since time immemorial by the Lords of the House of RON, which is the reason that it was not possible to have it transferred to an ordinary mayor (as was attempted) as was ruled by a Royal Executionary Letter. He was married to DOÑA LEONOR DE NAVIA VALDÉS Y BOLAÑO, daughter of ALONZO LOPEZ DE NAVIA BOLAÑO, Lord of Valdoselle in the Kingdom of Galicia and of the House of Lienes, Captain of War of the Council of Navia de Luarca and of DOÑA TERESA FLOREZ DE SIERRA, Lady of the House of CABO EL RIO of Tuña. Their arms consists of a split shield. In the first section is an armed knight with a naked sword on his right hand while on the other hand is the cross of Pelayo in gold with the motto: "HOC SIGNO VINCES" in a gules field; the second has a red band in the mouth of two dragons in a gold field. The first corresponds to the House of Plaiz de Arganza, founded by COUNT DON PEDRO PELAEZ, descendant of King Don FRUELA II; and the second to the House of Rodriguez de Tuña, from which house was formed the House of CABO EL RIO.

<PICTURES: (1) Vista of Tuña: House of Cabo el Rio; (2) The House of Cabo el Rio, mid-day (southern) façade.>

This illustrious house of CABO EL RIO, well known in Asturias for its nobility, and among its privileges and properties is found the Encomienda de la Silva, which was theirs from time immemorial. DOÑA ANTONIA DEL RIEGO NUÑEZ Y SIERRA PAMBLEY was a daughter from this house. She was a granddaughter of DON NICOLAS DEL RIEGO NUÑEZ, Oidor
121 of the Audiencia of the Canary Islands and of his wife DOÑA MARIA DE SIERRA PAMBLEY COQUE Y ALFONSO FLOREZ Y PERTIERRA, Lady of the House of Miravalles. She was married to the Lieutenant Coronel of the Army DON PEDRO FLOREZ-VALDÉS Y ALFONSO DE LLANO, of the House of Carballo, a descendant of the Fuertes de Cangas, of which are made mention at the beginning of this study as having being enthroned by Alfonso II The Chaste in the Castles of Sierra de Cangas de Tineo. Among their descendants are Don Diego Flórez Valdés, Archbishop of Palermo, President of the Chancellery of Granada, its Treasurer and that of the Council of Castilla122; and are Don Diego Flórez de Valdés, Knight of Santiago, Comendador of Oreja, Admiral of the March of the Indies123, and the first to land ashore in the conquest of Florida in 1565. He commanded the armada destined to fortify the Straights of Magallanes124 and defeated the French in the Port of Parahiba, taking all their booty, a feat that was put to song by a poet soldier of the armada. He was finally named General of the Squadron of Castille in the Armada called Invincible, and later first counselor of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, being ordered to transfer to the ship Generala with the chief. His fame occupies a prominent place as one of the most distinguished seamen of Spain.

The arms of the family of FLOREZ DE VALDÉS, whose principal ancestral house is actually located in Carballo de Cangas de Tineo, are: A vertically-partitioned shield. The partition to the right are the arms of Flórez which the ones in Asturias with this surname use. They are descendants of the Infante DON PELAYO FLOREZ, grandson of King DON FRUELA II and the Infanta DOÑA ALDONZA ORDOÑEZ, daughter of the Infante DON ORDOÑO (The Blind), son of King DON RAMIRO II and the Infanta DOÑA CRISTINA, daughter of King DON BERMUDO II; they consist of a lady crowned in gold on a blue field who carries in front of her a blue shield with five golden fleur-de-lis.

The partition on the left are the arms of Valdés, as used by the House of San Cucado, formed by three blue bands and ten gules bezants crossed in gold, interleaved three-two-two-three on a silver field.

In the Morteras, where the sepulcher of the Admiral is found the arms of Flórez de Valdés are shown as a vertically-partitioned shield. In the house of Carballo a shield is found with the arms of Flórez, of Valdés, Alfonso, and Queipo del Llano.

DOÑA NICOLASA FLORES VALDÉS DEL RIEGO, who was born in 1824 in CABO EL RIO was the daughter of DON PEDRO FLOREZ VALDÉS and DOÑA ANTONIA DEL RIEGO NUÑEZ, and was the mother of the author of this study.

The arms of Lienes have a split shield: The first partition contain the arms of Navia: A band of gold in the mouths of two dragons on a blue field. The second partition is cut: The superior quarter contain the arms of Bolaño: a silver ram with a bread loaf in mouth and an armed leg and foot wearing spurs in a synople field. The inferior quarter has the arms of Rivadeneira: a red, flowered cross as the one in Calatrava carrying five silver scallop-shells and from the points blue and silver slings on a gold field.

The previously-referred DOÑA LEONOR DE NAVIA was the daughter of ALONSO LOPEZ DE NAVIA Y BOLAÑO and of DOÑA TERESA FLORES DE SIERRA DE TUÑA of CABO EL RIO. She was the granddaughter of the Licenciado ALVARO PEREZ DE NAVIA RIVADENEIRA, Oidor of the Chancellery of Valladolid and Corregidor of Guipúzcoa and of his wife, DOÑA MENCIA DE VALDÉS, daughter of JUAN DE LLANO DE VALDÉS Y SALAS and of DOÑA ELVIRA VELAZQUEZ DE CIENFUEGOS, Lords of Mirallo and Valdunquillo, Marquises of Mirallo and niece of DON FERNANDO DE VALDÉS, who after great services performed for the Catholic Monarchs, Emperor Charles V, and Philip II, his son, was President of Castille, Archbishop of Seville, Inquisitor General of these kingdoms and Governor of them in the absence of Philip II when the King went to England, living and dying with the acknowledgment of being one of the greatest Prelates that the Spanish nation has ever had, and leaving among other institutions that he founded the Literary University of Oviedo.

DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON Y VALCARCE being the eldest son succeeded DON ANTONIO DE RON Y VALCARCE and DOÑA LEONOR DE NAVIA Y VALDÉS in the Señorios, vínculos, and Mayorazgos of the HOUSE OF RON and was married to DOÑA ISABEL QUEIPO DEL LLANO Y TINEO, daughter of DON DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO Y LLANO, Lord of Ardaliz and brother of DON FERNANDO DE VALDÉS Y QUEIPO DEL LLANO, President of Castille and Archbishop of Granada, founder of the Colegiata of Cangas de Tineo, and also brother of DON SUERO QUEIPO DEL LLANO, the first Count of Toreno.

Said DON LOPE in 1642 raised a company of infantry with vassals of his house and after leading it to the coast passed on to the Principate of Cataluña and from there to Milan, where he died in the village of Brene serving the cause of Spain, giving great proof of his zeal to the service of the nation.

DON ANTONIO DE RON VALCARCE, his brother, was a man of "singular and rare news, very erudite in all genera of literature," according to the COMPENDIO ANUAL DE LA EUROPA. He studied Canon Law in Salamanca for three years, one year of Philosophy, and studied Theology in the College of San Miguel, graduating as Doctor from this institution. He taught Theology at the university succeeding Padre Maestro Fray Rosendo Alvarez, of the Order of San Benito. He headed proceedings of the Faculty of Philosophy and one of Theology at the University of Oviedo. He was Examiner of the Bishopric of Pamplona; Visitador of the Arciprestazgo of Portillo and Vicar of Tudela and Villabañez; Abbott of Moncejón, Canon of Santiago, Calificador of the Supreme and General Inquisition, of the Council of His Majesty and the King's Chaplain in the Council of Flanders.

<PICTURE: Photo of full-length painting of a gentleman. Untitled. Presumably Don Antonio de Ron y Valcarce.>

The Gentleman Ernesto Franckenau of the literary firm of Don Juan Lucas Cortés, who wrote a lot about him in his BIBLIOTECA HERALDICA (pages 44-276-285) calls him "Vir in omni letteratum genere exercitatisimus" and says that he was much versed in genealogies and heraldic science and that he composed many good works (although without attaching his name to them)
126. Among these, according to Don Luis de Salazar de Castro, was one published with the title GENEALOGIA DE LA CASA DE RIVERA EN ASTURIAS.

In 1624 he wrote a criticism [demonstrating] wide erudition of the paper authored by Doctor Don Juan Nieto de Valcarce, doctor of the Duke of Sesa, which was published that year in Madrid and was re-published in Valencia.

DON ANTONIO DE RON, under order of the Vicar General of Madrid also wrote a criticism of the works of Don Luis de Alderete y Soto (Regidor of Málaga) called Respuesta del Auto del Protomedicato, where universal medicine is prohibited and of the paper of Don Juan Guerrero entitled Sol de la Medicina. His 34 page criticism is a well formed apologia as valuable as the works that it comments on, and from it one is able to get an idea of his wide erudition and extensive knowledge of the literature.

In 1670 (28 December) in Valladolid he wrote a letter directed to Don Felipe Bernaldo de Quirós, Lord of Olloniego, responding to one that he had received from him from Oviedo on 5 November of said year with a historical discourse of which he was the author where the issue of whether the body of Saint Eulalia of Mérida had been taken to Asturias by King Pelayo or by King Silo was considered. This letter was published by Don Felipe in the TIMBRE ASTURIANO where it occupies 23 pages full of erudite criticism, even though, as he confesses: "is what he can recall, as he is lacking of books as one who is on the road, staying in inns;" and concludes: "This is what I can tell you at this point without consulting my documents and review the manuscript of Padre Carvallo and the CORONA ASTURIANA that he finished and approved for publishing."

Dr. Isasi in the SISTEMA MÉDICO POLÍTICO calls his "a person of fame and reputation among erudites."

DON GABRIEL ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO, the Marquis of San Felipe and other contemporary writers cite him with praise, and DON JOSÉ PELLICER Y TOVAR in the MEMORIAL DEL CONDE DE MIRANDA calls him "doctisimo varón.

Lastly, many accredit him with being the author of a book that circulated widely in Asturias and that today no copies exist called EL TIZÓN DE ASTURIAS. He died when he was 82 years old in 1703.

DON ALONSO NUÑEZ DE RON succeeded in this House as in 1643 his brother DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON died without issue in the war in Flanders. The King commanded him to take possession of the Captaincy of War in the Councils of Pesoz, Grandas de Salime, and Salime by a Royal Grant
129. This edict was directed at Don Sebastian Hurtado de Cervera, who had received the commission to increase the number of Royal Militia Companies of the Principate of Asturias to 300 (which caused many to be divided). That of DON ALONSO DE RON remained intact in acknowledgment of the services that his elders has provided.

The Captaincy of War of Ibias which corresponded to the House of IBIAS and not to Don Alonso was awarded to DON DIEGO VALCARCE Y OVIEDO as husband of DOÑA ANTONIA DE RON Y VALCARCE (DON ALONSO's sister). He was married to DOÑA ANA BERNALDO DE QUIROS, daughter of DON FRANCISCO DE QUIROS and DOÑA ANA BERNALDO DE QUIROS, both of the House of Quirós.

DON MIGUEL ANTONIO DE RON, his son, succeeded DON ALONSO upon his death in 1683, and as his ancestors had done, he took possession of the Captaincy of War along with the vínculos, mayorazgos, Señorios and Jurisdictions that were attached to his House. He defended the jurisdictional rights that they enjoyed in IBIAS against those who denied these rights and once again confirmed that the rights of the family over this Señorio were from time immemorial, as attested in the Royal Executionary Letter granted by the Royal Chancellery of Valladolid in 1714. This was done in spite of the seizure of the Señorio executed by the President of the Audiencia of Oviedo in an attempt to incorporate it into the jurisdiction of the Principate. He used as arms a quartered shield. In the first quarter was the arms of the House of RON. In the second quarter were the arms of IBIAS. The third quarter had the arms of VALCARCE. The fourth those of the House of QUIROS. All of these have already been described.

He was married to DOÑA BEATRIZ DE MIRANDA ORDOÑEZ RIVADENEIRA CASTRO BAHAMONDE PARGE SEIJAS Y TOVAR, daughter of DON JACINTO DE MIRANDA, Lord of the Houses of SAAVEDRA and MALDONADO in Galicia. They had as children DOÑA MARIA MAGDALENA JOSEFA DE RON VALCARCE IBIAS MIRANDA RIVADENEIRA BOLAÑO CASTRO BAHAMONDE PARGE Y BERNALDO DE QUIROS, who married in 1710 with her cousin DON FERNANDO ORDOÑEZ DE SEIJAS TOVAR MERINO DE ANDRADE DE CASTRO Y MENDOZA, Lord of the illustrious ancestral houses of Ordoñez, Seijas, and Tovar. In their matrimonial agreement it is stipulated among other conditions that he and his children must take on the surname RON before taking possession of the mayorazgo, as DON ANTONIO (the elder) had to do, preceding RON to VALCARCE, which corresponded to his father; that the arms and shield of RON was to be placed to the right of whatever other arms that they included, and that they had to live in Cecos or Pesoz, and if they preferred to live somewhere else, they had to spend at least part of the year in one of those houses of RON E IBIAS. This was taken under oath, and was to be renewed in the same manner each time that the mayorazgo fell to a female, and if these promises were not obeyed they would incur the indignation of S. D. M.

There was no successor born of this matrimony, which was dissolved after the death of DOÑA MARIA MAGDALENA DE RON in 1714. In that same year, her father also died, so the successor of this House was DON FRANCISCO DE RON, the brother of her father.

DON ANTONIO DE RON BERNALDO DE QUIROS, second son of DON ALONSO NUÑEZ DE RON and of DOÑA ANA BERNALDO DE QUIROS was a novice in the Mayor of San Ildefonso de Alcalá, Knight of the Order of Santiago (on 14 June 1786 - his habit was placed on him by the Count of Monterrey, his relative), and was the Godfather of the Marquis de los Vélez, as noted in the certificate given by Don Joaquín de Rojas y Negrete, Secretary of the Council of Orders. He was a member of His Majesty's Council, and the King's Attorney General in the Royal Audiencia and Chancellery of Quito in the Indies (in 1690), where he had the difficult commission of bringing to submission the Chiroques Indians who gave him much to do. He demonstrated such energy and prudence in this task that he was recalled to the Cortes of Madrid to receive the reward corresponding to his merits. But he died in 1708
131 during his return to Spain during the clash between the Spanish armada in with which he traveled with the English one commanded by Admiral Bembow, which they confronted in Cartagena de Indias132. He carried with his last will and testament which detailed the disposition of his inheritance, and finding himself gravely wounded by a bullet that struck him and close to death (which reached him the next day), he ordered a testamentary memorandum. Its dispositions were executed by his brother DON FRANCISCO DE RON twenty-five years later, as it took that long for his affairs to be disentangled, for they had been seized by a friar in whom he had confided.133

<PICTURE: Photo of full-length painting of a cleric Untitled. Presumably Don Antonio de Ron Bernaldo de Quiros.>

It is known that de wrote several literary works, including a poetic composition to the memory of the Duke of Béjar, who died heroically in the assault of Buda in 1686.

DON FRANCISCO DE RON BERNALDO DE QUIROS succeeded this House upon the death of his brother DON MIGUEL ANTONIO and of his niece DOÑA MAGDALENA. He also died without issue, in spite of being married to DOÑA FELIPA ANTONIA MENENDEZ DE LUARCA Y TINEO, Lady of the House of Setienes. Fulfilling the testamentary instructions of his brother DON ANTONIO, he founded among other pious works the Chapels of San Antonio and of the Purisima Concepción, located in Santa Maria de Cecos in Ibias; he founded in that village a primary school of letters and endowed it with 3,000 ducats; he donated to the parochial churches of Cecos, Pesoz, San Antolín, Tormaleo, and Taladrid and others where the HOUSE OF RON had Patronage, providing them with ornaments, vestments, sacred vessels, and other cultic objects; and he founded the OBRA PIA DE RON, consisting of two dowries for two poor damsels and two pensions for two students, which are to this day offered to the relatives of the founder, although their amounts have been reduced and are remitted at irregular times due to the current insufficient funds of the OBRA PIA caused by the mismanagement of its interests and the losses incurred to the original capital.

<PICTURES: Two portraits, each of one gentleman. Untitled. One is younger than the other.>

<PICTURE: Four coat-of-arms of the Valcarce family.>

The Valcarce House

After the victory of Moslem arms at the bank of the Guadalete River -- which notwithstanding the vigorous charge by the Goths in the bloody struggle and the powerful and valorous effort of their King Don Rodrigo, both suffered the most complete and fatal defeat -- the Moors, a virile, warring, and exalted people, did not lose time in extending its domination across the entire breadth of the peninsula, except for the region in the north, where the natives opposed them with a vigorous resistance.

A Moorish army formed with the intent of conquering Galicia encountered a strong obstacle in the Cebrero Valleys, composed of the locals, who had taken refuge in the mountains and intercepted their path.

Lacking weapons of war -- for in the times of Witiza they had been melted down in order to shape the iron for other uses and because the rest fell in the hands of the Moors as war booty in the mournful and sorrowful defeat at Guadalete -- they supplemented this shortage by arming themselves with poles, which they acquired from the neighboring forests. Throwing themselves with such weapons against the invaders, they made them retreat bruised and defeated, leaving the field to the defenders of the land.

From this event, which occurred in the Valcarce Valley, the victorious chieftain took his surname, and his arms, alluding to this event consist of a castle with flag, five poles in their natural color and a cross of Calatrava, all on a blue field. These are the arms which the Valcarce of San Esteban de Valdueza and other families that descend from the Valcarce bear.

The ancestral house of Valcarce de San Esteban de Valdueza is one of the most illustrious of Bierzo, as much because of the antiquity of their lineage as for the other families to which they have become united by links of parentage. Those of this House always held the most honorable posts of Ponteferrada, capital of the province, and in the Valley of Valdueza enjoy preeminent seats in the churches of San Esteban, Cuesta, and Fonlevar. A Royal Executionary Letter given in 19 August 1596 authorized by Simón de Ortegón, Scribe of the Royal Chancellery of Valladolid, declares that they have been residents of San Esteban de Valdueza for more than 200 years, and that they descend from the Castle of Serracín y de Balboa in the Valcarce Valley, which today is owned by the Marquis of Villafranca.

The Valcarce family counts among its descendants the Marquis of Villafranca, descending from GARCIA RODRIGUEZ DE VALCARCE, Lord of Cabrera and Rivera, Merino Mayor and Adelantado of the Kingdom of Galicia, as stated by Salazar de Mendoza in the ORIGEN DE LA DIGNIDADES DE CASTILLA Y DE LEON

GARCIA RODRIGUEZ DE VALCARCE, the main trunk and most prominent head of the family, was the tenth grandson
135 of Luis XIV, King of France; grandson of Maria de Medici; great-grandson of Francisco de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany; third grandson of Cosme de Medici and Doña Leonor de Toledo, Grand Dukes of Florence; fourth grandson of Don Pedro de Toledo and Doña Maria Osorio de Valcarce, second Marquises of Villafranca; fifth grandson of Doña Beatriz Osorio and of Don Luis Pimentel, the first Marquises of Villafranca; sixth grandson of Don Pedro Alvarez Osorio and Doña María Bazán, Counts of Lemos; seventh grandson of Don Rodrigo Alvarez Osorio and Doña Aldonza Enríquez, Lords of Cabrera y Rivera; eight grandson of Don Alvaro Rodriguez Osorio and Doña María de Valcarce; ninth grandson of García Rodríguez de Valcarce, who was the eldest son of the aforementioned ADELANTADO GARCIA RODRIGUEZ DE VALCARCE.

CONSTANZA RODRIGUEZ DE VALCARCE was the daughter of ADELANTADO GARCIA RODRIGUEZ DE VALCARCE and was married to ALONSO LOPEZ DE LEMOS. They were the parents of PEDRO DE VALCARCE and grandparents of GOMEZ DE VALCARCE, both of whom took the fortress of Ponferrada in 1479 by raw force of arms. This fortress was being held by Lope Alfonso and Alfonso de Marcelle of Cacabelos, who denied obedience to Don Pedro Osorio, Marquis of Villafranca, Lord of Cabrera y Rivera, who held it in fiefdom after having been taken by Don Pedro Alvarez Osorio, Count of Trastámara who became powerful within its walls during the War of the Hermandinos of Galicia. As the immediate relatives of Don Pedro Osorio, PEDRO DE VALCARCE and GOMEZ DE VALCARCE offered their assistance and achieved a victorious result.

DOÑA CONSTANZA DE VALCARCE, daughter of GOMEZ DE VALCARCE and third granddaughter of the Adelantado married ALVARO LOPEZ DE LEMOS, Lord of Ferreira and of the Coto of Rosende in the Parish of Santa María de Pena. Their son, DON ALONSO DE VALCARCE, fourth grandson of the Adelantado, was Mayor of the fortress of Ponferrada, and made a will in 1587 leaving his son DON DANIEL DE VALCARCE the estates inherited from his parents on San Esteban de Valdueza, those that he possessed in the Abbey of Montes, and in Villafranca. DON DANIEL was noble Judge in the village of Ponferrada and died in 1618. DON DIEGO DE VALCARCE, his son and sixth grandson of the Adelantado was also Mayor of Ponferrada and the Royal title of his appointment says: "That agreeing to name someone for his service who is a person of quality and nobility, and coinciding this as well as many other circumstances and conditions in the person of DON DIEGO DE VALCARCE, etc., etc." He was married to DOÑA CATALINA DE OVIEDO. His sister, DOÑA MARIA DE VALCARCE married DON JUSTO GONZALEZ DEL CAMPO of Ponferrada, and were parents of the Reverend Padre Joaquín González de Campo y Valcarce, Jesuit Confessor of Queen Doña María Bárbara of Portugal, as well as parents of Don Manuel González del Campo, Dean of Málaga.

The arms of the House of Oviedo del Portal, located in the Cimadevilla street of the city of Oviedo are: On a blue field and over blue and silver slings, a series of arches over which a passant wolf is pursued by an eagle, and above all is a cross as the one called of the Angels (which are the arms of the city), and as border eight ermines on a silver field.

DON DIEGO DE VALCARCE Y OVIEDO, seventh grandson of the Adelantado married in 1642 with DOÑA ANTONIA DE RON Y VALCARCE, daughter of DON ANTONIO DE RON Y VALCARCE and DOÑA LEONOR DE NAVIA VALDÉS, Lords of the House of RON. He was named Captain of War of the Council of Ibias as it was incompatible with the Captaincy of War of Pesoz which was held by DON ALONSO NUÑEZ DE RON.

DON LOPE DE VALCARCE Y RON, his son, eighth grandson of the Adelantado, was Captain of a company in the Flanders War. He was married to DOÑA FRANCISCA MACIA Y MONROY, of a distinguished family of Ponferrada, proceeding from the noble lineages of her surnames: MACIA, of an illustrious lineage of the nobility of the Kingdom of León, who among its ancestors is found Gonzalo Macia, who went to the Indies as Infantry Captain under the Adelantado Don Gonzalo Giménez de Quesada, and who always distinguished himself being one of the most valorous and intrepid warriors of the expedition; MONROY, who is amongst the most qualified and ancient surnames of Extremadura, and which among their distinguished men are: Hernán Rodríguez de Monroy, Lord of Monroy, powerful knight who became famous in the wars of Antequera which were won by the Infante of Castilla Don Fernando, who later became King of Aragón; Rodrigo de Monroy, a knight of great valor and inspired thoughts; Don Sancho de Monroy, Inspector General of the galleys of Castilla, and who went to Flanders in 1598 with the people of Leiva and distinguished himself in the siege of Ostende and later in Milan, being Counselor of War and Knight of the habit of Santiago.

The arms of MACIA are six silver dies placed on two poles in a gules field. Those of Monroy consist of a quartered shield: on the first and fourth, a gold castle on a gules field, and the second and third blue and silver stripes, and above all a gold escutcheon with the gules bars of Aragón, and a blue border with eight silver crosses.

They had as son DON BARTOLOMÉ FRANCISCO, ninth grandson of the Adelantado, who inherited the House of San Esteban de Valsueza from his elders and from his grandmother DOÑA ANTONIA DE RON Y VALCARCE the vínculo of RON E IBIAS, founded by DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON and DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS because his uncle DON FRANCISCO DE RON Y BERNALDO DE QUIROS died without issue.

He married DOÑA MARIA DE IBIAS PATAGUIN, proprietary heiress of the House of IBIAS DE CUANTAS, reuniting in his heirs the Houses of RON, IBIAS, and VALCARCE.

<PICTURE: The House of IBIAS, in Cecos. Southern Façade.>

The Ron, Ibías, Quirós, and Valcarce House

DON BARTOLOMÉ FRANCISCO DE RON Y VALCARCE, proprietor of the House of Valcarce of San Esteban de Valdueza, by way of the male line came to possess the House of RON E IBIAS because DON FRANCISCO DE RON Y BERNALDO DE QUIROS, his uncle, died without succession. This took place because of the stipulations of the vínculos founded by DON LOPE NUÑEZ DE RON and DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS, as he was the grandson of DOÑA ANTONIA DE RON Y VALCARCE and DON DIEGO DE VALCARCE Y OVIEDO (proprietor of the House of his surname in San Esteban de Valdueza). He was married to DOÑA MARIA DE IBIAS DE CUANTAS, who as sole successor of the vínculo founded in 1540 by DON DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y RON, son of DOÑA MARIA ARES DE IBIAS and DON SANCHO LOPEZ DE RON, consisting of the portion of the estates of the HOUSE OF IBIAS that corresponded to her via her grandparents DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE IBIAS and DIEGO FERNANDEZ DE IBIAS Y MIRANDA, Lords of IBIAS, CUBILLOS, and LACIANA.

DON MIGUEL ANTONIO DE RON IBIAS VALCARCE Y BERNALDO DE QUIROS succeeded his parents in these houses. He married in 1734 with DOÑA FELIPA ANTONIA MENENDEZ DE LUARCA, daughter of DON JUAN MENENDEZ DE LUARCA, owner and lord of the house of Setienes in Luarca and of DOÑA GREGORIA DE AVILES Y FLORES, Lady of the House of Bolgues in the Council of las Regueras. The arms of the House of Setienes de Menéndez de Luarca are not the ones of this surname. Although there are "de Luarca" families with their own arms, those of Menéndez de Luarca -- notwithstanding their admirable family tree and elevated lineage and their links to the noble and distinguished families of Rico, Bolgues, Queipo del Llano, Avello, Riego, Virigo, and Arguelles -- never used any other save the shield of Cabranes, as used by the House of Tineo, which corresponds to them via DOÑA FRANCISCA DE TINEO OSORIO, daughter of DON DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO, Lord of the House of Tineo and from DOÑA ELVIRA OSORIO, Lady of de la de Laciana, wife of Captain Sancho Menéndez de Luarca, descendants of the House of Setienes at the end of the 16th Century. The description of this coat-of-arms will be found in the section discussing the House of Caballero.

DOÑA PAULA and DOÑA ROSA DE RON Y VALCARCE, his sisters were, successively, Abbesses of the Convent of la Concepción in Ponferrada.

DON LOPE MATIAS DE RON VALCARCE IBIAS BERNALDO DE QUIROS Y MIRANDA Y MENENDEZ DE LUARCA, son of DON MIGUEL ANTONIO DE RON and of DOÑA FELIPA ANTONIA MENENDEZ DE LUARCA, Lord of the Ancestral Houses of RON E IBIAS and the others aggregated to it, with its mayorazgos, jurisdictions, vínculos, and señorios, Perpetual Regidor of the Village of Ponferrada, principal knight of blood, Notable Hidalgo; descendant of the ancestral houses of his surnames, ancient and known for their antiquity and nobility of arms poner y pintar(?)
136, served several terms as deputy to the General junta of Asturias. He married in 1757 in Cangas de Tineo with DOÑA JOSEFA SIMEONA QUEIPO DEL LLANO VALDES QUIÑONES PIMENTEL Y YEBRA, Lady of the very illustrious and ancient families represented by her surnames. She was the daughter of DON FERNANDO QUEIPO DEL LLANO, Count of Toreno and Primary Lord of the House of Queipo del Llano, Alferez Mayor of the Principate of Asturias, and Lord of the villages and places of Toreno, Tombrio de Abajo, San Pedro de Mallo, Librán, and Matarrosa in el Bierzo; and of the jurisdictions of Cerrredo, Degaña, and Tejido in Asturias and de Llanos de Torre in Valencia. The arms of Queipo del Llano are three golden fleur-de-lis and below them three blue bands bordered in gold in a gules field, and bordered by golden pinecones on a blue field.

<PICTURE: Portrait of a blonde, very attractive, long-haired child. Appears to be a girl of about 8 years. Untitled. Presumably a portrait of Doña Josefa Simeona Queipo del Llano.>

137 professed in the Benedictine Order and was Professor of Theology at the Royal University of Hirache, Regent of Studies of Eslonja, Abbott of Oviedo and Santiago, Visitor General, and finally elected General Master of the Order of Saint Benedict in Spain in the General Chapter of 1793.

Sobrera in his GALICIA ILUSTRE, when referring to the Monastery of San Martín of Santiago says: "Today it is ennobled by the prerogative of their distinguished son and abbot, the Reverend P. Maestro Fray JUAN RON, born in his House of RON, Principate of Asturias, relative of the Illustrious Uria (who had previously been General of the Benedictine Order), Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo and by many other illustrious personages known throughout the kingdom; He is presently General of the entire Congregation of Saint Benedict in Spain. And we do not mention anything about his character because praise by the subjects about their prelates can give the appearance of flattery. This is one of the ones who deserves while he lives the reserved memory of a particular anecdote."

Padre Domingo Filgueira, in LA AUTORIDAD EXPLICADA Y DEFENDIDA, M. art.o 22 n. 23, also directs intense praise to his great experience in business; his painstaking prudence; his great virtue and science; and above all his careful solicitude in resolving with impartial judgment the matters that were under his care, and his diligent attention in avoiding being dragged by any side of an issue.

His funeral honors were celebrated with all solemnity in the Royal Monastery of San Martín de Santiago, where he had retired after serving his term as General.

The eulogy given at that event was offered by Padre Maestro Fray Iñigo García Giménez praised the virtues that distinguished him.

"Spend your good time, says vanity, to contemplate with pleasure or envy the opulence of the HOUSE OF RON and to use heraldic knowledge to recognize the coat-of-arms that ennoble it and elevate it to a level equal to the most illustrious houses of Asturias, advantages that were never heard mentioned by him; advantages which must yield its place in his panegyric to another more solid glory, to another more noble heraldry: to piety, which appears in that house as if it was inherited."

"His humility," he says later, "went hand-in-hand with the simplicity of his life, for the lowest monk did not have his cell more poorly furnished than his nor was he served more humbly. And recalling his kindness and humility: Once a monk who had a violent character and whom we feared was going to attack him found himself disarmed and confused in the presence of his Abbot. He received him pleasantly, telling him: `You never come here for breakfast.' And gave him enough so that he could eat for many days."

The simplicity of his character and private life is notably contrasted with his splendor when circumstances obligated him to generosity, which he employed when it did not concern his person. Palpable proof of this is the sumptuous and magnificent lamp for the principal altar that he gifted the Monastery, acquired from his own funds, and the splendid reception that he gave to his cousin Don Rafael Tomás Menéndez de Luarca, Bishop of Santander, when he came to San Martín de Santiago for his consecration.

The family of Menéndez de Luarca was extremely well known in the Benedictine Order, for the consecrated Don Rafael Tomás, youngest of eighteen children, had a brother who was a friar of the Order and seven sisters who were nuns in the Convents of de la Vega and San Pelayo in the city of Oviedo, both of the Order of Saint Benedict. His cousin, Abbot RON, offered the Convent of San Martín Pinario for his act of consecration. The celebrant consecrator was Señor Don Francisco Armaña, Bishop of Lugo, assisted by the Bishop of Mondoñedo and by the Auxiliary Bishop of Santiago. Don Rafael Tomás was sponsored by the Benedictine Community of San Martín and by the Abbot RON.

The display was magnificent and splendorous and the luxury was costly, all paid from the rents of the Abbot. When his consecrated cousin commented about the ostentation and considerable expenses, Abbot Ron replied: Religioni et tibi.

Having been elected General of the Order during a period of great crisis, produced by the French Revolution, Abbot Ron wrote his famous circular letter where he demonstrated his deep knowledge of historical criticism, of which he was amply versed. In it he particularly recommends the study of sacred science to the monks, because "the instructed monk," he says, "will be more docile and obedient to his superiors, least attached to the perishable goods, and most attracted to solitude and retirement."

During the long years that he lived after serving his Generalship, his retirement was complete, and all requests for decisions and for suggestions regarding recommendations for posts were in vain. He excused himself from all these interruptions by saying "I have a lot to account to God for my past government." And if at some times he responded, it was to favor people which he did not have reason to be grateful. "But this monk," his Abbot told him, "is not one who is fond of your grace (Rm.a(?))" "For that reason," he replied, "I would be most pleased if he were placed in the foremost posts."

In 1820 he suffered the excloistering that took place in those days, and the eulogizer says: "Where will our poor and venerable old man go? Will he return to the inaccessible and impracticable paths 70 years after leaving his native country, his paternal house? A nephew who inherited the estates and land of his elders offers to take care of him. He thanks him but refuses the invitation, as he wants to accept the heartfelt, fraternal offer made by the Reverend Father Guardian of San Francisco to him and to all the monks who would be willing to follow him. He spent the duration of the excloistering in the convent of San Francisco, and his humble and meek disposition never allowed him to reproach or complain about the violation, contenting himself by saying: "Let us turn this business to the Lord." "They must think that they are right." "Let us ask the Lord to illuminate them."

The year 1824 arrived and with it the monks were restored to the Monastery of San Martín Pinario. But he had reached the limit of his life. Fainting spells and other incidents were precursors of his last hour, which did not delay in coming. With a great tranquillity of spirit, he prepares himself and receives the Holy Sacraments. He bids farewell to his brothers with words full of kindness, and as one yielding to a sweet dream dies pleasantly in the Lord, leaving behind a brilliant wake of kind memories saturated with the perfume of his virtues.

His death came on March of 1825. He had been born in Pesoz on November of 1736, and he therefore had lived over 88 years.

The MOST ILLUSTRIOUS SEÑOR DON ANTONIO DE RON VALCARCE Y MENENDEZ DE LUARCA was a student in the Mayor of Oviedo of the University of Salamanca, Professor and Canon-Treasurer of Segovia, and lastly, Canon of Toledo and Judge of the Tithes of that primary church. He died in 1780 and his early death was widely grieved because of his talents and virtues, as noted in a letter written by the Archbishop of Toledo.

DON LOPE BENITO DE RON, VALCARCE, IBIAS, MIRANDA, BERNALDO DE QUIROS, MENENDEZ DE LUARCA, TINEO, QUEIPO DEL LLANO, VALDES, QUIÑONES, PIMENTEL Y YEBRA, "Lord of the Villages of Cecos, San Antolín, Santa Comba, its places and its annexations, the Cotos and jurisdictions of Marentes and La Brañota, Perpetual Regidor of the Villages of Ponferrada, Capital of the Province of Bierzo, Cangas de Tineo and Tineo in Asturias, Patron and Presentero in Solidum of the Curates and Chapels and benefices of San Jorge de Tormaleo, San Pedro de Taladrid, San Antolín de Ibias and Santa Maria Magdalena of the Village of Tineo, of the benefices of San Andrés and San Pedro of the Church of San Antolín de Ibias, of the Chaplaincies of Nuestra Señora del Rosario de Salime, Santa Maria Magdalena of the Village of Pesoz, and of many other Curates and Chaplaincies where he has the main presentations; Patron of the Mayor Chapels of the Parochial Churches of Santiago of Pesoz; San Antolín de Ibias; Santa Maria de Cecos; San Pedro de Taladrid; San Jorge de Tormaleo, and Santa Maria Magdalena de Tineo, owner of the Castles and Fortresses of RON and IBIAS in Asturias, etc., etc."

He succeeded in this House after the death of his father DON LOPE MATIAS DE RON. He was Deputy of the Junta General of Asturias and Teniente Alférez Mayor of the Principate of Asturias, serving his uncle, DON JOAQUIN JOSE QUEIPO DEL LLANO, the Count of Toreno.

He received the title of Perpetual Regidor of Cangas de Tineo, a post that he personally executed for twelve years. Later he received the title of Perpetual Regidor of Ponferrada, capital of the Province of Bierzo, a charge that he executed until his death.

In 1794 he married DOÑA MARIA DE CARMEN CABALLERO Y SIERRA, eldest daughter of DON JOAQUIN CABALLERO, Lord and owner of the House of Caballero of Tineo and its aggregate houses and of the House of Mumayor in Luiña and of DOÑA JOAQUINA DE SIERRA Y LLANES, daughter of DON RODRIGO DE SIERRA Y QUIÑONES, owner of the House of Sierra de Jarcelez and of DOÑA MARIA TERESA DE LLANES CAMPOMANES, Lady of the Houses of her surnames.

DON VICENTE DE RON QUEIPO DEL LLANO, Doctor of Theology, was Prior of Arbas, Assistant Vicar General
138 of Toledo, Vicar General of Cádiz and Canon of Palencia.

DON RAMON DE RON QUEIPO DEL LLANO was serving in the Royal Guard Corps when the War of Independence broke out. Leaving this service, as almost all the officers did, he passed to the army where he participated in [various]campaigns, gaining distinguished fame for his acts of bravery, achieving the rank of Lieutenant Coronel of the Regiment of Húsares of Fernando VII, and with this rank he retired in 1817.

DON ANTONIO MARIA DE RON QUEIPO DEL LLANO was studying law in the University of Oviedo when the war of 1808 broke out. He formed part of the Batallón de Literarios
139 created with the students of that university. He served in the army of General Ballesteros, who gave him a field promotion to Captain for his daring services. Continuing in his service for the duration of the war, he attained additional promotions, retiring with the rank of Coronel. He received various crosses and decorations with his brilliant acts and valorous deeds. He died in Madrid in 1857.

DOÑA MARIA MANUELA DE RON Y QUEIPO DEL LLANO married in 1775 with Don Antonio Pablo González Ares de Tejada, of the noble family of del Bierzo. Among his titles was that if Alférez Mayor of Ponferrada, capital of the Province of del Bierzo.

DOÑA MARIA JOSEFA DE RON Y QUEIPO DEL LLANO was a nun of the Catalinas of the city of León, and was named Abbess of that community.

<PICTURE: Seven coats-of-arms belonging to the Caballero family.>

The Caballero House

The House of Caballero originates with the Infante ADELGASTRO, son of King DON SILO, who together with his wife DOÑA BRUNILDA DE CANTABRIA founded in the year 780 the Monastery of Santa María de Obona, endowing it with extensive properties and privileges, serfs, livestock, and household equipment, as well as church ornaments, placing in it in the hands of Abbot Felix with other monks under the Rule of Saint Benedict. Their daughters were: (1) DOÑA BRUNILDA ADELGASTER who married Count Don Arias Lucido, Lord of Castro de Arias and Castro de Eiriz in the land of Saavedra of Lugo. He was the son of Count Lucido Arias, Captain of King Don Alfonso I (The Catholic). He was also the grandson of Arias Ferrández, who was Captain of King DON PELAYO as was his brother Sorred Ferrández. The parents of Arias Ferrández and Sorred Ferrández were FERRANDO FERRANDEZ, who died in the Battle of Guadalete and his wife ILDUARA ARIAS, Lady of Castro de Eiriz. (2) DOÑA ALDONZA ADELGASTER, who married Count Son Oveco Mesia.

These two Counts, Don Arias and Don Oveco, rebelled against King Mauregato and killed him in the year 788, avenging the ominous tribute of the 100 Damsels that he offered the Moors
(or that he at least passively acceded by not opposing the Moors who were extracting them from the country by force of arms). DOÑA BRUNILDA ADELGASTER and DOÑA ALDONZA ADELGASTER eventually found themselves widows, and in the year 830 they made a donation to the Monastery of Obona consisting of various estates, holy books, and ornaments for the benefit if the souls of their parents and husbands who were buried there, a donation which is confirmed by among many other knights Don Lucido, Don Silo, and Don Bermudo Arias, sons of DOÑA BRUNILDA. Fray Prudencio de Sandoval and Fray Antonio de Yepes, the Chronicler of the Order of Saint Benedict brought this donation to the monastery.

Around the year 1026 DOÑA GUDIGEMA, DOÑA ALEJANIA, DOÑA BRUNILDA, and DOÑA MAFARRA, all very principal ladies, make a donation to the same Monastery of Obona consisting of the village of Pinero which they had inherited from the Infante ADELGASTRO, their grandfather

In 1206, GARCIA GARCIEZ DE TINEO, a very powerful knight in that land initiated a noisy lawsuit against the Monastery of Obona contesting the Patronage that (he argued) corresponded to him and his brothers as descendants of the INFANTE ADELGASTRO. Yepes, in his CRÓNICA GENERAL DE LA ORDEN DE SAN BENITO affirms that such was the power of this knight that King Alfonso IX of León had to personally come to Obona and take the monastery under his protection and care to end this contest. On this matter, El Rey et tota Curia Regis et Episcopi gave their solemn ruling.

Since those days the Houses of TINEO, DEL RIEGO, and CABALLERO (for the three Houses have a single, identical origin) are known continuously until present times. This is because FERNAN GARCIA DE LAS GARCAZAS, the son of GARCIA GARCIEZ, according to Carvallo (Part 3, Título 36) was Lord of the Coto of Sangoñedo, and had as daughter INES FERNANDEZ DEL RIEGO. She was given in matrimony to SANCHO YAÑEZ DE CABRANES, Lord of the House of Cabranes as a reward for avenging a wrong that FERNAN GARCIA had suffered at the hands of an enemy, which because of his old age he had been unable avenge himself of the insult received.

The arms of Cabranes are: One a red field: an oak tree and two goats, one standing and one reclining, and on the border five silver sea shells. These are the arms presently used by the House of Tineo, which derives its origins from DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO, great-grandson of SANCHO YAÑEZ DE CABRANES.

INEZ FERNANDEZ DEL RIEGO makes her Will on 10 March 1327, and says: "I leave to GUILLEN GARCIA, my son, the inheritances and mountains that I have in the Council of Tineo and the vassals of the Coto de Sangoñedo that were under my father, FERNAN GARCIA DE LAS GARCAZAS."

He son, GUILLEN GARCIA CABALLERO succeeded her. He was called that (Caballero) as he was the Knight of the Golden Spur. In his Will of 1361 he founds an elective mayorazgo in favor of his son DIEGO GARCIA including the estates enumerated in the document, and establishes the obligation of twelve anniversaries of masses to be sung in Obona. This mayorazgo was an elective vincular institution, allowing the father to select one among his sons [for inheritance], and if there were no males, "for the woman of closest relation (proximity), and in case there is a dispute, the person of my lineage who will receive said estates will be decided by the Abbot of said Monastery of Obona, and none other. The estates will be received by whomever the Abbot decides, and when the selected person dies, the other person of my lineage who disputed the claim will not be able to claim them, unless that person informs said Monastery and pay [for them] as I have stated, and said Monastery can receive said estates, and hold them, and use them until they are vouched and paid for."

The arms of GUILLEN GARCIA CABALLERO consist of a silver castle over water, a lion prisoner within it, with three silver sea shells, all on a synople field, from whence comes the adage: "AGUA, CASTILLO Y LEON PRISIONERO, ARMAS SON DE CABALLERO."
142 These arms were used and are still being used by the families of Riego and Caballero, descendants of GUILLEN. He was married three times and had ten children, which he cited in his Will. GUTIERRE DEL RIEGO, his youngest child, was the progenitor of the House of Barreiro del Riego de Tuña.

His eldest son, DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO, succeeds his as the first listed in the vínculo founded by his father. He was married to DOÑA CATALINA SUAREZ DE QUIÑONES, sister of the Adelantado of León and Merino Mayor of Asturias Pedro Suarez de Quiñones and had several children: DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO, the progenitor of the House of Tineo; ALVAR GARCIA CABALLERO, progenitor of the House of Riego de Tineo; and DOÑA URRACA DEL RIEGO, who married into the House of Arganza, as will be mentioned later, plus others who had different destinies.

This DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO, son of GUILLEN GARCIA CABALLERO was one of those Infanzones who assisted the Rico-hombres and the Kings as Captains of the companies that they themselves recruited and sustained at their own cost, receiving from the Rico-hombre or from the King a quota for each of his men. This can be deduced from his Will, which states: "I charge my son Diego Garcia with my men and my servants, so that he will defend and maintain them as well as can be done, and the penalty for not doing so is [the withholding of my] blessing."

DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO and his son ALVAR GARCIA CABALLERO, charged by the Adelantado PEDRO SUAREZ DE QUIÑONES, joined the nobility of the land to take the fortresses of Tineo and Cangas which have been overtaken by Fernán Sánchez de Piedrabuena and Diego Sánchez de Reciella. They were disobeying the orders of the King and the Bishop of Oviedo, following the orders of the rebellious Count of Gijón, the brother of the King, and were committing abuses and depredations throughout the land. After constant battles and great spilling of blood by both sides, DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO and ALVAR GARCIA CABALLERO managed to overcome the Count of Gijón and his men, taking them prisoners to the Real of Gijón were the Adelantado was staying.

Both the Infanzón DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO and his son ALVAR GARCIA CABALLERO along with their men assisted the Adelantado PEDRO SUAREZ DE QUIÑONES in the War of Andalucia and in the siege of Algeciras, where they were until the city surrendered. After that, DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO retired, ceding his post to his son ALVAR GARCIA CABALLERO who continued in the war and later served as witness to the Will of the Adelantado given in Algeciras on 5 August 1388.

Around these times there were great battles between those of the House of Tineo del Riego and those of the House of Plaiz de Arganza. One encounter was in San Félix de Mirayo, where those of the Arganza were exterminated and their leader Diego Suarez was killed.

These battles ended after both families agreed to a treaty, and to establish a durable peace they agreed to the matrimonial link between DOÑA URRACA DEL RIEGO, daughter of the Infanzón DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO and his wife DOÑA CATALINA SUAREZ with JUAN GARCIA PLAIZ DE ARGANZA. Later, MENEN PLAIZ DE ARGANZA, the son of this couple, married DOÑA URRACA DEL RIEGO, daughter of ALVARO GARCIA CABALLERO and his wife DOÑA MARIA FERNANDEZ.

The grandson (of DOÑA URRACA DEL RIEGO and JUAN GARCIA PLAIZ DE ARGANZA) MENEN PLAIZ DE ARGANZA (who was the son of ARIAS PLAIZ DE ARGANZA and of ALDERA DE TINEO) married DOÑA ALDONZA RODRIGUEZ DE TUÑA, sole heiress of that House, and they were the progenitors of the House of CABO EL RIO, the House of greatest resonance in Tuña and Tineo, whose blood intermingled with many other noble houses of the country.

During these confrontations and continuous battles the Parochial Church of San Félix de Mirayo was burned, and this event is mentioned by the Infanzón DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO in his Will which he granted in Tineo on Friday, 18 September of the year of our Lord 1388 before Fernán Suaréz, Notary Public, which states: "I, DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO son of GUILLEN GARCIA CABALLERO, may God forgive, destine my body to be buried in the Monastery of Obona in the new monument that I ordered made, etc., etc." disposing many [funds] for pious works. He cedes to his eldest son, DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO, the house at Cimadevilla with many other estates and additionally leaves him with Las Morteras which was granted to him by the Adelantado, along with the vineyards of Arganza that were owned by SANCHO GARCIA DE CABRANES and INES FERNANDEZ DEL RIEGO, his grandparents, plus the estates in the Council of Grandas and in Rivadeo, Burón, and Navia de Suarna, from Montefurado to all those parts, and also leaves him "the majority his books and a silver cup that I and my wife own."

To ALVARO GARCIA CABALLERO, his second son, he leaves "preceding my other daughters and sons my houses where Diego Garcia my son lives in today and via the same precedence half of the inheritances of Sangoñedo and in the Councils of Cabranes and Colunga and in the vicinity of Oviedo."

He grants his other sons and daughters different portions of estates and a great quantity of grants to other persons. To the Church of San Félix de Mirayo he grants estates and money to repair "the damage that I have done" and 400 maravedises to the rebuilding of the church and for 400 masses which must be sung for the soul of Diego Suárez and for the souls of those who died with him "so that God may find it in His mercy to forgive me."

ALVARO GARCIA CABALLERO Y TINEO retired to his house in Tineo once the War of Andalucia ended. He was married to MARIA FERNANDEZ and they were the parents of DIEGO GARCIA DEL RIEGO, through which the succession of the House of del Riego de Tineo continues. From GUILLEN GARCIA CABALLERO, progenitor of the HOUSE OF CABALLERO in Tineo and from DOÑA URRACA DEL RIEGO (who, as was stated, married MENEN PLAIZ DE ARGANZA) descend the two Houses of Arganza and Rodríguez de Tuña, from which the House of CABO EL RIO were formed.

DIEGO GARCIA DEL RIEGO married DOÑA GUIOMAR RODRIGUEZ and founded a new vínculo in Obona in 1459 for their sons ALVARO GARCIA DEL RIEGO and DIEGO DEL RIEGO, who was fighting in the war in Andalucia with his kinsman the Count of Luna, successor of the Adelantado. When both retired (the former to Fonteniella and the latter in Sorriba), they were treacherously assassinated on the day of San Martín by their uncle, the brother of their grandfather DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO, Lord of the House of Tineo, and for that event he was generally known by the sobriquet "The Killer."

Because of the treacherous deaths of ALVARO GARCIA DEL RIEGO and of his brother DIEGO DEL RIEGO, the succession of the Houses of del Riego and Sangoñedo fell to their sister MARIA FERNANDEZ DEL RIEGO, who at the time was married in Galicia to ALVARO GONZALEZ DE SAN PEDRO DEL RIO, an ancient, strong, and very illustrious house in that land. Their sons distributed the inheritances: The House of del Riego fell to their son GUILLEN GARCIA DEL RIEGO and that of Sangoñedo to ARES GONZALEZ DEL RIEGO. The eldest brothers inherited in Galicia.

The HOUSE OF TINEO originates from DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO, THE KILLER; the HOUSE OF DE RIEGO proceeds from DIEGO GARCIA DEL RIEGO; and the HOUSE OF CABALLERO, has as progenitor GUILLEN GARCIA CABALLERO. All three are sons and grandsons of the Infanzón DIEGO GARCIA DE TINEO and his wife CATALINA SUAREZ DE QUIÑONES. These three families have the same origin and are of the most notable nobility of Tineo, where the occupied the primary posts and the most distinguished preeminences, without any class distinctions among them.

Concerning the Caballero branch: DIEGO GARCIA CABALLERO, son of GUILLEN GARCIA CABALLERO, its progenitor, was noble Judge in the Council of Tineo in 1564 by commission of the Count of Luna. His great-grandson, ALVARO GARCIA CABALLERO, son of ALVARO and grandson of another ALVARO GARCIA CABALLERO was Alcalde Mayor of Tineo, and when the Council redeemed itself from the Señorio controlled by the Count of Luna, he acquired the Perpetual Regimiento, which was passed down within the HOUSE OF CABALLERO.

DON DIEGO GARCIA CABALLERO, son of the aforementioned person of the same name, was a student of San Pelayo de Salamanca (and was a relative of its founder, DON FERNANDO DE VALDÉS). He married DOÑA URRACA PERTIERRA, owner and Lady of this House, whose arms consists of a castle over waters with a man carrying a key in one hand and a sword in the other on a blue field. In ancient times, the arms of Pertierra consisted of a cross and two keys, as it was noted in ancient documents and shields. Its origins date from the times when the INFANTE DON PELAYO came to his ancestral lands in Tineo and Cangas after the Battle of Covadonga to rid them of the Moors who had seized Tineo, its fortress, and its Church of San Pedro. Because of the long and painful siege, Pelayo ordered the construction of a church besides the castle, where the besiegers could attend to their religious obligations for the length of the operation. This is the Church of the Magdalena
143, which after the surrender of Tineo the INFANTE ordered that it remain open for services, giving its keys to the progenitor of the HOUSE OF PERTIERRA, and this house has conserved its patronage until the present time144. In memory of that event, the arms of that house use the Cross of PELAYO and the keys. The HOUSE OF PERTIERRA has its seat in the plaza of the village of Tineo, and in it the descendants of the HOUSE OF CABALLERO have lived until today.

DON DIEGO GARCIA CABALLERO, his son, in 1638 obtained the title of Perpetual Regidor of Cangas de Tineo. He was married to DOÑA LUCIA FLORES DE SIERRA, Lady and proprietress of the HOUSE OF FONTANEL. Their arms consists of a lady crowned in gold covering her breast with a shield on a blue field with five silver fleur-de-lis.

DON DIEGO CABALLERO FLORES, his son, lived his entire life in Tineo and in 1682 married DOÑA CATALINA DEL RIEGO, daughter of ARES GONZALO DEL RIEGO and of DOÑA CONSTANZA DE LLAMAS, Lords of Sangoñedo, and had inherited the House of del Riego because his cousin, DIEGO GARCIA DEL RIEGO (the great-grandson of GUILLEN GARCIA DEL RIEGO) lacked a successor. He was the grandson of LOPE DE MIRANDA DEL RIEGO and of DOÑA INES DE VALDES, who was the great-granddaughter of JUAN BERNALDO DEL RIEGO and of DOÑA MARIA DE SAAVEDRA and great-great-granddaughter of ARES GONZALEZ DEL RIEGO and of DOÑA SANCHA DE MIRANDA, sister of the previously-mentioned GUILLEN GARCIA DEL RIEGO. This lady, DOÑA CATALINA DEL RIEGO granted the HOUSE OF CABALLERO half of the free estates of the Houses of del Riego, Sangoñedo, and Llamas, as the entailed estates were destined for her brother Don Pedro del Riego, who continues the succession of these houses.

The brothers of DON DIEGO CABALLERO FLORES was DON ALVARO CABALLERO FLORES, Priest and Archpriest of Tineo and the Most Reverend Padre Fray JUAN CABALLERO FLORES of the order of Santo Domingo
145, Professor of San Gregorio, Lector of said school, and Catedrático de Prima146 of the University of Oviedo, Ph.D. graduate of that university and a man of great virtue and merit. He wrote several tomes in folio about the Summa of Saint Thomas and an honorary mention is made of him in the book of honors that the university published upon the death of King Felipe IV.

DON MANUEL CABALLERO FLORES was a studious and erudite man. He researched many archives and read much ancient documentation, which made him well versed in curious and erudite matters. The National Library (Manuscript Section, number 9656) contains a tome in quarto written by him containing many curious news of Tineo and very interesting genealogical facts of various noble families of Asturias. He was married to DOÑA MARIA DE INCLAN Y SALAS, who because of her early and unexpected death left behind only one child, DON FRANCISCO, who succeeded in this House.

The arms of Inclán consist of a vertically divided shield. The first partition has a tower with a greyhound at the door and a soldier on top with a sword held high on a blue field. The second partition has a planted pine and three gules fleur-de-lis, one on top and one on each side on a gold field.

His brother, DON ANTONIO CABALLERO FLORES was a Knight of Santiago and died in San Marcos of León in 1689. Two sisters, DOÑA MARIA and DOÑA CATALINA, died being professed nuns. Another sister, DOÑA ROSA CABALLERO was married to her cousin, DON ANDRES CABALLERO, and are the progenitors of the Caballero family of Oviedo.

DON FRANCISCO ANTONIO CABALLERO came to own the House of Caballero in 1730 and was Perpetual Regidor of Tineo until 1757, the year that he died. He left an endowment for masses and anniversaries as did his forebears which are all buried in San Francisco de Tineo because from the time that they separated from the principal house they ceased being buried in Obona.

DON DIEGO ANTONIO CABALLERO FLORES succeeded in this House on 1757 and was married to DOÑA MARIA DEL ROSARIO ALBUERME Y BUSTO, Lady and proprietress of the House of Mumayor in San Martín de Luiña, a noble lineage of Asturias. Their arms consist of five gold stars placed in Sotuer
147 on a blue field. In 1758 he became Perpetual Regidor of the city of Oviedo and in the same year he received the title of Perpetual Regidor of Cangas de Tineo and later of Tineo after his father's death.

DON JOAQUIN ANTONIO CABALLERO, his son, who was born in 1748, lived his entire life in his house in Tineo and was married to DOÑA JOAQUINA DE SIERRA Y LLANES, Lady of the House of Sierra de Jarceley, as she was a daughter of DON RODRIGO DE SIERRA Y QUIÑONES, owner of said House and of his wife DOÑA MARIA TERESA DE LLANES ARGUELLES, from the house of her surname, sister of the Archbishop of Seville, DON ALONSO MARCOS DE LLANES ARGUELLES CAMPOMANES.

The arms of de Sierra consist of three synople bands bordered in gold on a gules field; those of Llanes consist of a flying eagle holding a castle in its claws on a blue field.

The succession of the HOUSE OF CABALLERO ends with his daughter, DOÑA MARIA DEL CARMEN CABALLERO. The House was incorporated into the HOUSE OF RON after her matrimony to DON LOPE BENITO DE RON Y QUEIPO DEL LLANO, which took place in the Convent of Otero de las Dueñas in 1792, where she was a student.

<PICTURE: Full length portrait of Don Estanislao de Ron y Caballero (seated).>

The House of RON, Ibías, Quirós, Valcarce and Caballero

After the death of his father, DON LOPE BENITO DE RON, DON ESTANISLAO DE RON Y CABALLERO inherited the HOUSE OF RON with all the entails, mayorazgos, Señorios, and jurisdictions, and by way of his mother DOÑA MARIA DEL CARMEN CABALLERO those of CABALLERO, PERTIERRA, and DEL RIEGO in Tineo, those of FLORES in Fontaniella, and those of MUMAYOR in Luiña. He was the last jurisdictional Lord of these Houses as the Señorios were suppressed by the Cortes of Cádiz, and the last possessor of the mayorazgos as they were also suppressed by the Ley de Desvinculación of 11 October 1820.

He was Deputy to the Junta General of Asturias and was elected Deputy to the Cortes in the general elections of 1836, 1841, and 1843. He was also Political Chief of the Province of Oviedo in 1840, excelling since his youth among the patriotic elements of Asturias.


Although the HOUSE OF RON legally ends with the last possessor of its entails, Mayorazgos, Señorios, and jurisdictions, the family of that name did not die out. On the contrary, it became incredibly prolific and copious: The twelve children that he had were the cause that his estates were divided into twenty-four parts, one part going to each child and thirteen parts going to the eldest. Successive partitionings reduced the ancient value and power and produced an economic depression of the estates.

From these twelve children, the succession was increased by 45 grandchildren, among which is the author of this study. From these were born 86 great-grandchildren, and presently the fourth generation is being born. This forms a dilated succession that encompasses more than 160 individuals, which have studied various scientific and literary disciplines in various universities, colleges, seminaries, and schools of the realm, obtaining by their efforts degrees in Theology, law, medicine, pharmacology, and other fields corresponding to their study. They have been practicing in the fields for which they were destined in diverse administrative branches of the State, Provinces, and Municipalities, as well as in civil, military, and ecclesiastical, secular, and private posts. They have spread out throughout the entire nation, establishing themselves in Ibias, Pesoz, Cangas de Tineo, Tineo, Pravia, Oviedo, and Gijón in Asturias; in Lugo, Orense, Lages, Mondrid, Santiago de Compostela, Puentedeume, and Coruña in Galicia; in Ponferrada, San Esteban de Valdueza, Villafranca, Cacabelos, and Corullón in León; in Laredo in Santander; in Plasencia in Extremadura; in Valladolid, Segovia, and Madrid in Castille; in the Spanish possessions in Morocco; and in various nations of Spanish America.